Can you name a historical romance anime

Genres

Shonen

Shōnen is the Japanese term for “boy” and is aimed at boys between the ages of 12 and 18. Thus, this genre is the counterpart to the Shōjo Anime and Manga. The focus of the story is a young male protagonist who develops further as the plot progresses. He trains, fights, and has to endure adventures to achieve his goal. Therefore, in anime and manga from the shōnen area, the fight and action scenes are in the foreground and less the emotions of the protagonists. However, the themes of friendship, romance, humor, team spirit and solidarity can often be identified within the group.[1]

Shōnen manga and anime rely on clear and hard accents in the drawing style. The characters are kept rather simple and are not worked out in great detail. However, the background and the environment in which the protagonist is, as well as the action and fight scenes, are shown in great detail. Thus, the focus is no longer placed on the protagonist.[2] The page structure is usually not very complex, the panels are clearly recognizable and divided.[3]

Typical genres that appear in shōnen manga and anime include sports, action, fantasy, adventure, science fiction and comedy.

Examples of Shons are among others Naruto, Dragon Ball, Blue Exorcist or One piece.[4]

Shōjo

Shōjo is the Japanese term for “girl”. Manga and anime of this genre are aimed at girls between 12 and 18 years of age and form the counterpart to the Shōnen manga and anime. The focus of the stories is mostly on a young girl who is looking for her great love or the friendships of the protagonists. Therefore, the focus of the plot is on love stories or romances. Shōjo Manga and Anime take a lot of time for the development of the protagonists, their thoughts and feelings, as well as the relationships between the characters. Fight and action scenes play a rather subordinate role.[5] Another characteristic of Shōjo is that they usually contain one or more Bishōnen (Japanese term for “handsome boy”). Bishons are good-looking young men who, among other things, can have fine feminine facial features. This type of representation corresponds to the ideal of beauty in Japan.[6]

Shōjo-Manga and Anime rely on detailed and artistic drawings in the drawing style. The protagonists attach great importance to their appearance, e.g. their hair and eyes. The eyes are usually drawn oversized and shiny, as this says a lot about the personality of the person according to Japanese philosophy. Great attention is paid not only to physical characteristics, but also to clothing. This is mostly drawn according to current trends or the current fashion. There are no longer any clear boundaries between the individual panels in the page structure. These can be of different shapes or sizes, partially overlap, fade and have no clear outer boundaries. The characters can now also be staged on a full page.[7] In order to give the overall picture a romantically familiar effect, symbols such as flowers, feathers or leaves are also used.[8]

Typical genres that appear in shōjo manga and anime are fantasy, mystery, romance, love, everyday school life, magical girl, drama and history.

As an example of Shōjo-Manga, among other things Fruits Basket, Kaichou wa Maid-Sama, Sugar Soldier and Sailor Moon stand.[9]

Kodomo

Kodomo is the Japanese term for “child” and is intended for children up to 10 years of age. Manga and anime in this genre are designed for both male and female consumers.[10] The stories of Kodomo manga and anime are usually completed in a chapter or episode, making them easy to understand.[11]

The Kodomo genre includes, for example, the manga and anime series Doraemon, Iron Kid, Pokémon and Tamagotchi.[12]

Shōnen-Ai

Shōnen-Ai is the Japanese term for “boy love” and is a sub-genre of Shōjo-Manga and Anime. At the center of the story is the love affair between two, mostly pretty, boys or young men. Shōnen-Ai-Manga and Anime are primarily aimed at girls and young women and are usually also written by women[13]. In Japan, Shōnen-Ai are also known as Boys Love. Although the focus of the story is on love relationships between men, the sexual relationship plays a rather subordinate (platonic) role and a great deal of emphasis is placed on romance or the relationship.[14]

This genre includes, for example Angel’s Feather, Loveless, Mirai Nikki and Tokyo Bayblon.[15]

Shōjo-Ai

Shōjo-Ai is the Japanese term for “girl love” and is the counterpart to Shōnen-Ai. At the center of the story is the love affair between two, mostly pretty, girls or young women. Although the focus of the story is on love relationships between women, the sexual relationship plays a rather subordinate (platonic) role and a great deal of emphasis is placed on romance or relationship.[16]

Manga and anime series that can be assigned to this genre are for example Air Master, Brave Witches, High School DXD or Sakura trick.

Yaoi

Yaoi is the Japanese abbreviation for “yama nashi, oshi nashi, imi nashi” and means “without a climax, without a punch line, without a statement”. The Yaoi Anime and Manga is the further development of the Shōnen-Ai and is aimed at adult women as a target group. Just like Shōnen-Ai, Yaoi are predominantly drawn by women. At the heart of the story is the relationship between two adult men. While in the Shōnen-Ai the romantic relationships are more in the foreground, in the Yaoi, among other things, the sexual relationship is explicitly shown.[17] In terms of drawing style, Yaoi are similar to their parent genre Shōjo. The protagonists are typically drawn according to their role in the relationship, ie “offensive” or “passive”. The active part is drawn with stereotypically masculine features, such as defined muscles and angular jaws, whereas the passive part is drawn more androgynously or more feminine.[18]

This genre includes the manga and anime series Warm Coffee, Kiss Through the Mask, Desert Flower or Roommate.[19]

Yuri

Yuri-Manga and Anime are the further development of Shōjo-Ai and are aimed at adult male and female readers. The boundaries to Shōjo-Ai are fluid. At the center of the story is a love affair between two adult women, whereby the sexual relationship of the protagonists is explicitly portrayed.[20] Although there is a focus on the sexual representation of the relationship, these sequences are still shown emotionally and in a larger framework.[21]

For example, belong to the Yuri genre Cream Lemon, Stainless Night, Sex Crime and Inc.[22]

His

His is the Japanese term for “young man” and is aimed at an adult male target group aged 18 and over. In contrast to shons (for male adolescents from approx. 12-18 years of age), his subjects deal with serious or complex issues. The representation of eroticism and violence can be stronger.[23] Especially acts that take place in war, but also crime stories raise more moral questions. The stories are mostly multi-layered (or more ambiguous) on many levels, since characters are no longer portrayed in the classic way as good or bad. The male characters are typically portrayed as samurai, yakuza (Japanese criminal organizations), assassins, spies or snipers. [24]

Typical genres that appear in his include sports, adventure, action, war and crime. In addition, topics that are of interest to men are dealt with, for example work or married life, but sex comedies are also possible.[25]

The manga and anime series Berserk, Hellsing, Monster or Drifters belong to this genre, for example.[26]

Josei

Josei is the Japanese term for “woman” and is aimed at an adult female target group aged 18 and over. In contrast to Shōjo (for female adolescents from approx. 12-18 years of age) Josei deal with serious or complex topics. The representation of eroticism and violence can be stronger.[27] As with Shōjo, the focus is on the protagonists' relationships and feelings. However, these are no longer presented only romantically, but also with realistic honesty. As with shōjo manga and anime, one or more biseins appear in Josei stories. These are young, attractive men who, in contrast to Bishons, are portrayed as being somewhat more muscular and “masculine”.[28]

Typical genres that appear in Josei manga and anime, among others, are romance, love, drama, fantasy, science fiction and history. In addition, topics that are of particular interest to adult women are also covered, such as single or married life, activities in the workplace and family legends.[29]

For example, the manga and anime become Josei Perfect World, Real Clothes, Husk of Eden and Waltz counted.[30]

Mecha

The mecha genre evolved from the science fiction genre. At the center of the story is usually a young protagonist who controls a giant robot, the so-called mecha, to save or defend the earth. In the past, mecha-manga and anime were designed for the male target group and were more likely to be found in the shōnen or his area. In the meantime, however, this has changed and mecha stories are designed for both male and female target groups.[31]

Most of the actions of mecha revolve around major conflicts and wars, against aliens, monsters or a human antagonist who wants to use new technology for his own purposes.[32] A slightly larger focus can also be placed on the relationship between the fighter and his robot. The protagonist is usually accepted and trained as a new recruit at the beginning of the story. During the training he receives information about the group he has joined and about the conflict to be resolved or the enemy to be defeated. He also learns how to operate robots, which are often human-shaped and controlled from a cockpit.[33]

Typical genres that are linked to the mecha genre include Shōnen, Shōjo, Shōnen-Ai, Seinen, Josei, Yaoi, science fiction, comedy, fantasy, action and adventure.

Manga and Anime, which are assigned to the genre Mecha, are for example Tetsuwan Atomu (Astro Boy), Code Geass, Captain Earth and Full Metal Panic !.[34]

Magical girl

Magical Girl is the English word for “magical girl”, and is a sub-genre of the Shōjo genre, which is aimed at young girls. At the center of the story is an ordinary girl who struggles with everyday problems. At the beginning of the plot she discovers magical abilities or receives them, with which she has to fight against the evil in the course of the plot.[35]

The protagonist is a young girl who stands out for her clumsiness, absent-mindedness, excessive curiosity and unfulfilled love for a classmate. By chance she receives a magical object, which could be a mysterious brooch, a gemstone, a mirror, a piece of jewelry or a make-up utensil. This gives her magical abilities and turns her into a magical girl. A costume change takes place during the transformation. During the whole time, the protagonist is supported by advisors, who can be a talking animal, a little fairy, or another supernatural being, among other things.[36]

Typical genres that are linked to the Magical Girl genre include Shōjo, Romance and Fantasy.

Unsurprisingly, it is Sailor Moon one of the first and to this day best known examples of this genre. Other examples are Shugo Chara! and The Exploding Girl.[37]

Fantasy

Fantasy is one of the most common genres in manga and anime and in a broader sense encompasses everything that is magical. In the actions, among other things, magical fairy tales, legends, epic adventures or heroic epics can be told. Dwarfs, fairies, demons, angels, monsters, magicians or other mythical creatures can appear in it. The action can either take place in the “normal” world or in a magical (often with a medieval touch) world. The manga creators get inspiration from old Japanese legends and myths, but also from sagas and fairy tales from all over the world.[38]

The protagonist must protect or save his own or the new world from dark forces. In doing so, he embarks on a journey in which he has to overcome various challenges. Here he gets to know companions who later become friends and support him on his journey. The big goal is to learn skills or to get items to defeat the enemy. In the end, the protagonist learns to grow beyond himself. Among other things, he finds his courage and gains self-confidence.[39]

Typical likes that are linked to the fantasy genre include Shōnen, Shōjo, Seinen, Josei, Adventure, Action, Romance, Comedy, History and Science Fiction.

Examples of this genre include the manga and anime Attack on Titan, Fairy Tail, Inu Yasha and Likei.[40]

Science fiction

Science fiction is one of the largest genres found in manga and anime. Initially, science fiction began as a sub-genre of the shōnen manga and anime and was therefore designed for the male target group. It quickly developed into a genre of its own. Nowadays, science fiction stories are designed for both male and female target groups, as girls and women showed an increasing interest in the stories.[41]

At the center of the story is a young protagonist who fights for the earth and defends it against aliens, monsters or human antagonists. In the broadest sense, the genre deals with stories about the meaning of life, the future of people or humanity, concerns about technology and the increase in technology in life. It thus reflects the fears, hopes and dreams of society and definitions about life, identity, soul, morality and life have to be created.[42]

Typical genres that are linked to the science fiction genre include Shōnen, Shōjo, Seinen, Josei, Adventure, Action, Romance and Drama.

Belong to this genre, for example Akira, Made in Abyss, Sword Art Online and Terra Formers.[43]

History

Manga and anime from this genre take place in times and eras. In these stories, historical accuracy is not always paramount. It may well be that only the drama and zeitgeist of the era are taken up. Authors usually do extensive research on the epochs and note some facts in explanatory notes in the margin.[44]

Some of the plots deal with Japanese history, with the plots preferably being set in the Japanese Middle Ages, especially in the Edo or Meiji epochs. The story of a samurai is often told, in which the plot is largely based on fights, which can also be brutal and bloody. However, the genre is not limited to Japanese history, but can also take place in other countries and epochs, whereas here the focus is on the elaborate costumes and can have a great Gothic influence. For example, the stories from the time of Marie-Antoinette can be set in Versailles, the Borgias in Italy's Renaissance period, in Victorian England or the Second World War.[45]

Typical genres that are linked with include Fantasy, Romance, Shōnen, Shōjo, Shōnen-Ai, Yaoi.

Examples of history include Kingdom, Golden Kamuy, Green Blood and Blood and Steel.[46]

Sports

This genre deals with athletic stories that are about contests and competitions and is aimed at both male and female audiences. The sports can range from soccer, boxing, car racing, volleyball, baseball, ballet, sumo, swimming or chess.[47]

The plot revolves around a young athlete who has to surpass his own physical capabilities to win a competition. The most important characteristics of the athlete are their endurance, skill, commitment and fair sporting behavior[48]. In addition, it can also happen that an athlete has to be willing to sacrifice his own health, his friendships and his own personal happiness for his own victory or the victory of the team.[49] Other topics that are dealt with in sports manga and anime are the rivalry between individual athletes or teams, team spirit[50], Tensions between athletes and coaches and the transition from childhood to adulthood[51].

In this genre, the most important thing is competition, so there is hardly any other storyline. Most of the action focuses on the ups and downs of the competition. Therefore, a lot of emphasis is placed on the presentation, which can extend for a long time and is shown in detail.[52]

Typical genres that are linked to the sports genre include Shōnen, Shōjo, Shōnen-Ai, Seinen, Josei, Comedy, Action and Drama.

Examples of the genre are the manga and anime Haikyuu !!, Diamond no AceKuroko no Basket and Slam dunk.[53]

Comedy

Comedy is the most widely used genre in manga and anime, and it is included in almost everything, even serious manga and anime. Most of the time the humor is used to make fun of other characters, to raise the mood, or to make fun of manga conventions. For many manga readers, it takes a bit of getting used to and surprising when a character suddenly cracks a joke, even in serious moments. But these mostly achieve their primary goal, which is to make the reader laugh.[54]

Examples that can be given to this genre are One Punch Man, How to Keep a Mummy, Love So Life and Assassination classroom.[55]

Romance

The genre romance can be found in most manga and anime, especially in the shōjo area, but also in the shōnen area. At the center of the story is a romantic love affair. The stories can be about girls who have their first experiences in the field of love or who are looking for great love. Furthermore, it can be described how the couple comes together after a confession of love or the work that makes a relationship and its maintenance is shown.[56]

The genre romance includes, for example, the manga and anime Dengeki Daisy, Skip Beat !, Nisekoi and Velvet Kiss.[57]

Adventure

The adventure genre, like the action genre, makes up a large part of shōnen manga and anime. In these stories, the characters leave their normal everyday life to go on a journey.[58] During the journey, the character explores his world and tries to find happiness or to achieve a goal he has set himself, whereby he usually has to solve various tasks. In the meantime, he meets other characters, makes new friends, gets companions or makes enemies. As a rule, manga from the adventure genre are very long and therefore comprise a large number of manga volumes. For this reason, the story is divided into various small sections (arcs).

Manga and anime series belonging to this genre are for example One Piece, Hunter x Hunter, Seven Deadly Sins and Magi.[59]

Action

The genre action, like the adventure genre, makes up a large proportion of shōnen manga and anime. The stories contain a lot of fighting, persecution and violence. Therefore, in the shōnen area, complex character development is mostly dispensed with and the focus is placed on the fights and action scenes. The numerous action inserts create a lot of tension in the plot, which makes it appear more dynamic and also drives it forward.[60]

In Manga, these scenes are shown in great detail. Different types of lines are used in battle scenes to represent movement, hits and injuries. In order to increase the tension until the final blow, short pauses are inserted in both the manga and the anime. [61]

Examples of the genre action are Bleach, Fullmetal Alchemist, Tokyo Ghoul and Attack on Titan.[62]

horror

In the horror genre, it's all about giving the reader a feeling of fear and horror, up to and including confusion. In most of the stories, supernatural phenomena such as ghosts, gods, demons, monsters, zombies, but also psychopathic serial killers appear, from which a life-threatening situation for the protagonist emanates. Manga creators get the inspiration for this from old legends and myths[63].

This genre includes, for example, the manga and anime Claymore, High School of the Dead, bastard and Hellsing.[64]

drama

Dramas are very emotional and serious stories that revolve around a person who mostly has to rearrange their life, e.g. through a life crisis or who is facing a life-changing decision. Mostly stories are told of pain, trauma, divorce, the loss of a loved one or a fatal illness. Dramas show people at their most vulnerable moments and focus on the emotions and the value of life. With this genre, it can happen that there is no happy ending for the characters.[65]

Examples of the drama genre include Another, Orange Marmalade, My Girl and Arisa.[66]

thriller

Thriller is a special kind of tension and is supposed to stimulate the reader's nerves. At the center of the story is usually a common man (which creates a stronger identification of the reader with the protagonist), from whose perspective the action is told. The protagonist usually ends up in a life-threatening and sometimes also in a hopeless situation that he can neither overlook nor control. In order to maintain the tension as much as possible, the story alternates again and again between tension and relief[67].

Examples of manga and anime belonging to the Thriller genre are Steins; Gate, Signal 100, Noise and Doubt.[68]

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  1. See Brenner, Robin, E. (2007): Understanding Manga and Anime, pp. 31-32 ↑
  2. See Ossmann, Andrea (2004): Phenomenon Manga, p. 44 ↑
  3. See Haverkemper (2006): Manga in German Libraries, pp. 42-43 ↑
  4. See aniDB (2019): Shonen (electronic source) ↑
  5. See Brenner, Robin E. (2007): Understanding Manga and Anime, pp. 34-35 ↑
  6. See Sturm, M. / Teich, M. (2006): Fascination Manga and Anime, p. 46 ↑
  7. Cf. Brunner, Miriam (2009): Manga-Die Faszination der Bilder, p. 40 ↑
  8. See Ossmann, Andrea (2004): Phenomenon Manga, pp. 42-43 ↑
  9. See aniDB (2019): Shojo (electronic source) ↑
  10. See Brenner, Robin E. (2007): Understanding Manga and Anime, p. 7 ↑
  11. See Fandom Animanga (undated): Kodomo (electronic source) ↑
  12. See aniDb (2019): Kodomo (electronic source) ↑
  13. See Brenner, Robin E. (2007): Understanding Manga and Anime, p.304 ↑
  14. ibid. ↑
  15. See aniDB (2019): Shounen Ai (electronic source) ↑
  16. See Brenner, Robin E. (2007): Understanding Manga and Anime, 304 ↑
  17. See Brenner, Robin E. (2007): Understanding Manga and Anime, p. 306 ↑
  18. See Kanderske, Max (2012): Critique of the Representation of Gay Masculinity in the Yaoi Manga, p. 5 (electronic source) ↑
  19. See Manga Club (2018): Yaoi Manga (electronic source) ↑
  20. See Brunner, Miriam (2010): Manga, p. 55 ↑
  21. See Brunner, Miriam (2010): Manga, p. 55 ↑
  22. See myAnimeList (2015) Yuri Anime (electronic source) ↑
  23. See Brenner, Robin E. (2007): Understanding Manga and Anime, p. 303 ↑
  24. ibid, p. 34 ↑
  25. See Brenner, Robin E. (2007): Understanding Manga and Anime, p. 34 ↑
  26. See myAnimeList (2015): His Anime (electronic source) ↑
  27. See Brenner, Robin E. (2007): Understanding Manga and Anime, p. 35 ↑
  28. ibid. ↑
  29. ibid. ↑
  30. See myAnimeList (2015): Josei Anime (electronic source) ↑
  31. See Brenner, Robin E. (2007): Understanding Manga and Anime, p. 160 ↑
  32. See Sturm, M / Teich, M. (2006): Fascination Manga and Anime, p. 38 ↑
  33. See Brenner, Robin E. (2007): Understanding Manga and Anime, p. 160 ↑
  34. See myAnimeList (2015): Mecha Manga (electronic source) ↑
  35. See Brenner, Robin E. (2007): Understanding Manga and Anime, p.177 ↑
  36. See Ossmann, Andrea (2004): Phenomenon Manga, p. 49 ↑
  37. See anime planet (2019): Best Magical Girl Manga (electronic source) ↑
  38. See Brenner, Robin E. (2007): Understanding Manga and Anime, pp. 172-174 ↑
  39. ibid. ↑
  40. See myAnimeList (2015): Fantasy Manga (electronic source) ↑
  41. See Ossmann, Andrea (2004): Phenomenon Manga, p. 46 ↑
  42. See Brenner, Robin E. (2007): Understanding Manga and Anime, 159 ↑
  43. See myAnimeList (2015): Sci-Fi Manga (electronic source) ↑
  44. See Brenner, Robin E (2007): Understanding Manga and Anime, pp. 152-155 ↑
  45. ibid. ↑
  46. See myAnimeList (2015): Historical Manga (electronic source) ↑
  47. See Brenner, Robin E. (2007): Understanding Manga and Anime, 121-122 ↑
  48. ibid. ↑
  49. Cf. Brunner, Miriam (2009): Manga - Fascination of Images, p.37 ↑
  50. See Brenner, Robin E (2007): Understanding Manga and Anime, pp. 108- ↑
  51. Cf. Brunner, Miriam (2009): Manga - Fascination of Images, p.37 ↑
  52. ibid. ↑
  53. See myAnimeList (2015): Sports Manga (electronic source) ↑
  54. See Brenner, Robin E (2007): Understanding Manga and Anime, pp.108-109 ↑
  55. See anime planet (2019): Best Comedy Manga (electronic source) ↑
  56. See Brenner, Robin E (2007): Understanding Manga and Anime, pp.130-132 ↑
  57. See myAnimeList (2015): Romance Manga (electronic source) ↑
  58. See Brenner, Robin E. (2007): Understanding Manga and Anime, p. 142 ↑
  59. See myAnimeList (2015): Adventure Manga (electronic source) ↑
  60. See Brenner, Robin E. (2007): Understanding Manga and Anime, p. 142 ↑
  61. ibid. ↑
  62. See myAnimeList (2105): Action Manga (electronic source) ↑
  63. See Brenner, Robin E (2007): Understanding Manga and Anime, pp. 183-184 ↑
  64. See myAnimeList (2015): Horror Manga (electronic source) ↑
  65. Lexicon of film terms (12.12.2012): Drama (electronic source) ↑
  66. See myAnimeList (2015): Drama Manga (electronic source) ↑
  67. Lexicon of film terms (15.06.2016): Thriller (electronic source) ↑
  68. See myAnimeList (2015): Thriller Manga (electronic source) ↑