What is the past tense used by laypeople
LIBRERIA EDITRICE VATICANA
VATICAN CITY 1997
From the mystery of the Church springs the call addressed to all members of the mystical body to actively participate in the mission and building up of the people of God in an organic community in accordance with the various offices and charisms. An echo of this call can be heard repeatedly in the documents of the Magisterium, especially since the Second Vatican Council (1). In the last three ordinary general assemblies of the Synod of Bishops in particular, the identity of the laity, priests and consecrated people was reaffirmed in their common dignity and in the diversity of their tasks. All believers were encouraged to collaborate in building the church for the salvation of the world.
It should be emphasized that the apostolic activity of the laity in evangelization is important and urgent, now and in the future. The church cannot disregard this work because it belongs to her nature as a people of God and because she needs it in order to fulfill her own evangelizing mission.
The call to the active participation of all believers in the mission of the Church has not gone unheard. The 1987 Synod of Bishops stated that “the Spirit continues to renew the Church, awakening new impulses of holiness and participation in many lay people. The new style of collaboration between priests, religious and lay people testifies to this, among other things; participation in the liturgy, in the proclamation of the word of God and in catechesis; the many services entrusted to and performed by laypeople; the diverse emergence of groups, associations and spiritual communities as well as joint initiatives by the laity; the broader and more significant participation of women in the life of the Church and in developments in society ". (2) Likewise, in the preparation of the 1994 Synod of Bishops on the consecrated life, one encountered" everywhere an honest yearning "," between bishops, institutes of the consecrated life, secular clergy and lay people to build authentic relationships of community and cooperation ". (3) In the post-synodal apostolic letter, the Pope confirms the specific contribution of consecrated life to the mission and building up of the Church. (4)
There is a co-operation of all believers in both orders of the mission of the Church, in the spiritual one in order to bring the message of Christ and his grace to men, as well as in the worldly order in order to penetrate the secular reality with the spirit of the Gospel and (5) Especially in the former - in evangelization and sanctification - "the apostolate of the laity and the ministry of the shepherds complement each other." (6) Lay people of both sexes have innumerable opportunities to become active, and through coherent witness in personal life, in family and society, through the proclamation and transmission of the gospel of Christ in every setting and through the endeavor to identify, defend and correctly apply Christian principles in the face of current problems. (7) Especially the Shepherds are called to »recognize the services (" ministeria "), offices (" officia ") and functions (" functiones ") of the laity and to promote. These have their sacramental basis in baptism and confirmation and often also in marriage ”. (8)
Indeed, amazing pastoral initiatives have blossomed in the life of the Church in this area, especially after the important impetus emanated from the Second Vatican Council and the papal Magisterium.
Today the primary task of the new evangelization, which concerns the whole people of God together with the priests as "protagonists", requires the renewed and full awareness of the world character of the mission of the laity. (9)
This project opens up immense horizons of engagement in the world, in the field of culture, art and theater, in scientific research, in the world of work, in the mass media, in politics, in business, etc. Your whole spirit of enterprise is required to create more and more effective forms so that these fields of activity find their fullness in Jesus Christ. (10)
Within this broad field of common activity, be it in the specifically spiritual or religious order, be it in the "consecratio mundi", there is a special area that concerns the spiritual service ("sacrum ministerium") of the clergy. Lay people, men and women, and of course members of institutes of consecrated life and societies of apostolic life who have not received the sacrament of Holy Orders, may be asked to collaborate in the exercise of this ministry. The Second Vatican Council refers to this particular area, where it teaches: “Finally, the hierarchy entrusts the laity with certain tasks that are more closely connected with the offices of shepherds, such as instruction in Christian doctrine, with certain liturgical ones Acts and in pastoral care ". (11)
Since these are tasks that are more closely related to the obligations of the shepherds - who, to be shepherds, must have received the sacrament of consecration - it is necessary that all who are in any way affected by it should have one Exercise special care so that the nature and mission of the spiritual service as well as the calling and world character of the laity are preserved. Cooperating does not mean replacing.
We can say with great satisfaction that the cooperation of the laity in the pastoral service of the clergy is shown in a very positive way in many particular Churches and, taking into account the limits set by the nature of the sacraments and the diversity of charisms and ecclesiastical functions, produces rich fruits of good; situations are met with generous and meaningful solutions where there are no or too few spiritual ministers ("sacri ministri"). (12) It has proven to be advantageous that, in the sense of community, some members of the Church, insofar as they are without To be endowed with the Sacrament of Orders is possible to work diligently in the relief of emergency situations and chronic needs of some communities. (13) These believers are called and commissioned to take on certain very important and delicate tasks. They are strengthened by the grace of the Lord, accompanied by ministers, and well received by the churches for whose benefit they offer their ministry. The spiritual shepherds fully acknowledge the generosity with which many devotees and lay people make themselves available for this specific service, which they perform with faithful "sensus Ecclesiae" and sincere devotion. Special gratitude and encouragement are due to those who carry out these tasks in situations of persecution of the Christian community, in territorial or cultural mission areas, where the Church is still little rooted or where the priest is rarely present. (14)
This is not the place to go into all the theological and pastoral richness of the role of the laity in the Church. He was already through the Apostolic Letter Christifideles laici presented in detail.
The aim of this document is simply to give a clear and binding answer to the urgent and numerous inquiries that our dicasteries have received from bishops, priests and lay people who have asked about new forms of "pastoral" lay activities in parishes and dioceses to be enlightened.
Often these are practices that arose in emergency situations and often developed with the intention of providing generous help in pastoral care, but which can have serious negative consequences for the correct understanding of true ecclesiastical community. Such practices are particularly common in some areas; sometimes they are very different even within the same area.
In any case, they remind of the serious pastoral responsibility of those, especially the bishops, (15) who are called to establish the general order of the Church on the basis of some doctrinal principles already established by the Second Vatican Council (16) and the subsequent papal magisterium ( 17) have been clearly set out to promote and preserve.
Reflections were made within our dicasteries and a symposium was organized, attended by representatives of the episcopates chiefly concerned with the problem. Finally, an extensive survey of many chairmen of episcopal conferences and other bishops and experts from various ecclesiastical fields and geographical origins was carried out. The result showed a clear agreement in the sense of the present instruction. However, this does not claim to deal with the topic exhaustively, because one would like to limit oneself to the currently best known problems and because the special circumstances in which such problems arise are extremely different.
The text, written on the firm basis of the extraordinary and ordinary magisterium of the Church, is entrusted for faithful application to the bishops concerned; but it is also brought to the attention of the bishops of those areas in which, although there are currently no abusive practices, which, because of the rapid spread of the phenomena, could soon also be affected.
Before going into the concrete problems that have been brought before us, it seems necessary to begin with a few brief and fundamental theological elements relating to the importance of the sacrament of Orders in the constitution of the Church. It is about a well-founded understanding of the church order, which wants to promote the rights and duties of all with respect for the truth and for the church community, because "the salvation of souls in the church must be the supreme law". (18)
1. Common priesthood and priesthood of ministry
The eternal high priest Jesus Christ wanted his church to share in his one and indivisible priesthood. It is the people of the New Covenant, in which "the baptized by being born again and anointed with the Holy Spirit ... are consecrated to a spiritual edifice and a holy priesthood, that they may make spiritual sacrifices in all the works of a Christian person Proclaim power deeds of him who called them out of darkness into his wonderful light (cf. 1 petr 2,4-10) «. (19)» So one thing is the chosen people of God: "One Lord, one faith, one baptism" (Eph 4.5); together the dignity of the members from their rebirth in Christ, together the grace of childhood, together the call to perfection ". (20) While there is" true equality among all in the dignity and activity common to all believers in building up the body of Christ ", some are appointed according to Christ's will as "teachers, dispensers of secrets and shepherds for others" (21). The common priesthood of the faithful, as well as the priesthood of service, that is, the hierarchical priesthood, “differ in nature and not merely in degree. Yet they are related to one another: one and the other each partake in a particular way in the priesthood of Christ. "(22) There is a real unity between the two, because the Holy Spirit unites the Church and you in communion and service gives various hierarchical and charismatic gifts. (23)
The essential difference between the common priesthood and the priesthood of service is not to be found in the priesthood of Christ, which is always unique and indivisible, nor in the holiness to which all believers are called: “The ministerial priesthood does not in itself mean one higher degree of holiness compared to the common priesthood of believers; but through the ordained priesthood a special gift in the Spirit is bestowed upon priests by Christ so that they may help the people of God faithfully and fully exercise the common priesthood conferred upon them. "(24) There is one in the structure of the Church, of the Body of Christ Diversity of members and functions, but one is the Spirit who, for the benefit of the Church, distributes its many gifts according to its wealth and according to the needs of the service (cf. 1 cor 12,1-12).(25)
The difference concerns the "way" of participation in the priesthood of Christ and affects the essence in this sense: "While the common priesthood of the faithful is in the development of the grace of baptism, in the life of faith, hope and love, in the life according to the holy When the Spirit works, the ministerial priesthood is at the service of that common priesthood. It relates to the development of the baptismal grace of all Christians. "(26) Accordingly, the ministerial priesthood" is essentially different from the common priesthood, for it confers sacred authority to serve the believers ". (27) This is why the priest is called to "Grow in the awareness of the deep communion that binds him to the people of God" in order to "stimulate and develop joint responsibility for the one common salvation mission, with lively and heartfelt recognition of all charisms and tasks that the Spirit gives believers for the building up of the Church gives ". (28)
The characteristics which distinguish the priesthood of the ministry of bishops and priests from the common priesthood of the faithful and which subsequently also indicate the limits of the laity's participation in the spiritual service can be summarized as follows:
a) The priesthood of ministry has its roots in apostolic succession and is endowed with a sacred authority (29) that is the empowerment and responsibility to act in the person of Christ, Head and Shepherd. (30)
b) The priesthood of service makes spiritual officials servants of Christ and the Church through the empowered proclamation of the Word of God, the celebration of the sacraments, and the pastoral direction of the faithful. (31)
A characteristic of Catholic doctrine about the Church is to anchor the foundations of the ordination office in apostolic succession, insofar as this office continues the mission which the apostles received from Christ. (32)
Hence the ordination office is constituted on the foundation of the apostles for the edification of the church: (33) "The ministry of the priest is entirely for the church". (34) "The sacramental nature of the church ministry is intrinsically connected with its service character. Because the ministers are entirely dependent on Christ, who gives mission and authority, they are truly "servants of Christ" (Rom 1.1) based on the example of Christ, who voluntarily assumed "servant form" for us (Phil 2.7). Because the word and grace of which they are servants do not come from them, but from Christ, who entrusted them to them for others, they should voluntarily make themselves slaves of all ”. (35)
2. Unity and diversity of official tasks
The functions of the ordination office in their totality form an inseparable unit due to their single foundation (36). As in Christ (37) there is only one root of saving action, designated and realized by the minister in the exercise of the functions of teaching, sanctifying and guiding other believers. This unity essentially determines the exercise of the functions of spiritual service, which are always in different respects the exercise of the role of Christ, Head of the Church.
If, therefore, the exercise of "munus docendi, sanctificandi et regendi" by the ordained minister constitutes the essence of the pastoral ministry, the various functions of the spiritual ministers, which form an inseparable unit, cannot be understood separately from one another, but rather in their mutual understanding Connectedness and complementarity are considered. It is only in some of these functions that believers not endowed with the Sacrament of Orders can, to a certain extent, cooperate with the Shepherds if they are called by legitimate authority and in the intended manner to exercise this cooperation. Jesus Christ "in his body, the Church, always has the gifts of service, by virtue of which through his power we serve one another for salvation." (38) "The fulfillment of such a task does not make the laity a shepherd: it does not constitute a task the office but the sacrament of consecration. Only the sacrament of ordination grants the ordained minister a special share in the office of Christ, Head and Shepherd, and in his eternal priesthood. The task performed by representation derives its legitimation formally and directly from the official commissioning by the shepherds.Their concrete fulfillment is under the direction of the Church's authority. "(39)
This doctrine must be affirmed because some practices to remedy the shortage of consecrated ministers in the ward have in some cases created an understanding of the common priesthood of believers that obscures its meaning and meaning. Among other things, this leads to a decline in candidates for the priesthood and obscures the special position of the seminary as a typical place for the formation of the ministerial minister. These are closely intertwined phenomena, the interrelationships of which will have to be considered in order to draw well-considered conclusions for practice.
3. Irreplaceability of the ordination office
A community of believers cannot derive its leadership from organizational criteria from associations or politics if it wants to be called a church and be truthful. Every particular church owes its leadership to Christ, because he himself granted the church the apostolic office. Therefore, no church has the authority to give it to itself (40) or to use it on its own behalf. The exercise of the teaching and leadership service requires canonical and legal determination by hierarchical authority. (41)
The priesthood of service is therefore necessary for the existence of the congregation as a church: "The consecrated priesthood must not be set later than the ecclesiastical community, as if its establishment could be understood without the priesthood". (42) If there is no priest in the congregation is present, then the ministry and sacramental function of Christ, Head and Shepherd, which are indispensable for the life of the ecclesial community, are missing.
The priesthood of service is therefore absolutely irreplaceable. Hence the immediate need for vocation ministry that is diligent, orderly, and continually seeking to give the Church the ministers it needs, as well as the need for the careful formation of those preparing for the priesthood in seminaries. Any other solution to the problems arising from the lack of ministers can only be questionable.
»Promoting professions is the task of the entire Christian community. Above all, it fulfills them through a truly Christian life. "(43) All believers have a responsibility to ensure that the call to the priesthood is positively accepted by following Jesus Christ more and more faithfully and that the indifference of the environment, especially in strongly materialistic societies, is overcome becomes.
4. Co-operation of the laity in pastoral service
In the Council documents, under the various aspects of the participation of believers who are not endowed with the character of consecration in the mission of the Church, the direct participation in the specific tasks of the Shepherds is also dealt with. (44) “If it is useful or necessary for the good of the Church, can the shepherds entrust the laity with certain tasks in accordance with the norms of universal law, which, although connected with their own pastoral office, do not presuppose the character of consecration. "(45) This cooperation is regulated by post-conciliar legislation and especially by the new code of canon law been.
According to the statements on the duties and rights of all believers (46) in the following section, the Codex deals not only with the duties and rights that lay people have due to their global character, (47) but also with other tasks and functions that are not exclusive to them get. Some of these concern all believers, whether or not they are endowed with the sacrament of ordination, (48) others are more closely related to the ministry of ordained ministers. (49) With regard to these latter functions and functions, the laity have no right to exercise them. But they "can be used by the spiritual shepherds for those ecclesiastical offices and tasks which they are able to carry out according to the legal provisions". (50) For if "there are no representatives for these services ..., laypeople can also ... perform certain tasks of the same in accordance with the legal provisions ". (51)
In order for this cooperation to be harmoniously integrated into pastoral service, it is necessary, in order to avoid pastoral deviations and disciplinary abuses, that the doctrinal principles are clear and that the rules in force are carefully and loyally applied throughout the Church, without abusing the concept of exception to extend to cases that cannot be viewed as "exceptional".
If abuses and boundary-disregarding practices occur anywhere, pastors should use the necessary and appropriate means to prevent their spread in a timely manner and to avoid damaging a proper understanding of the nature of the Church. In particular, they should apply the disciplinary regulations that have already been established. These help to know and really respect the difference and the complementarity of the functions that are vital for the ecclesiastical community. But where such practices disregarding the boundaries have already spread, responsible intervention by the competent authority must absolutely not be postponed. This is how true community is established, because it can only be built on truth. Community, truth, justice, peace and love are interdependent concepts. (52)
In the light of the principles just mentioned, the appropriate means are now named which are intended to remedy the abuses reported to our dicasteries. The following ordinances are taken from Church law.
Need for Appropriate Terminology
In his address to the participants in the symposium on "the collaboration of the laity in the pastoral ministry of priests", the Pope stressed the need to clarify and distinguish the various meanings which the term "ministry" has taken on in theological and canonical language . (53)
§ 1. "For some time it has become customary to use" ministries "not only those" officia "(offices) and" munera "(tasks) exercised by the shepherds by virtue of the sacrament of consecration, but also those exercised by Lay people exercised by virtue of the baptismal priesthood. The terminological question becomes even more complex and delicate when one recognizes the possibility that all believers - alternatively and officially commissioned by the shepherds - can carry out some tasks which are due to suitable clerics, but which do not require the character of consecration. It should be noted that the use of language appears uncertain, confused, and therefore not useful in expressing the doctrine of the faith whenever one somehow recognizes the distinction "in nature and not merely in degree" that exists between the common priesthood of the baptized and the ordained priesthood blurred ". (54)
§ 2. What makes it possible in some cases to extend the term "service" to the "munera" peculiar to the laity is the fact that these too, to a certain extent, participate in the only priesthood of Christ. The "officia" temporarily entrusted to them, on the other hand, are exclusively the result of commissioning by the Church. Only the constant reference to the one fundamental "ministry of Christ" ... allows the expression "ministry" to be unequivocally applied to lay people to a limited extent, that is, without this being understood and experienced as an improper pursuit of the "spiritual" Service "or as a progressive erosion of its particularity.
In this original sense, the term "service" (servitium) only expresses an activity whereby members of the Church continue the mission and service of Christ within themselves and for the world. If, on the other hand, the expression is differentiated with regard to the relationship and comparison of the various "munera" and "officia" with one another, then one must clearly point out that it is only by virtue of consecration that it receives that fullness and clarity in meaning that tradition has always intended for it has «. (55)
§ 3. The believer who is not endowed with the sacrament of ordination receives the general designation "extraordinary commissioner" only if he has been commissioned to do so by the competent authority, as a substitute for the tasks set out in can. 230, § 3 (56) or in cann. 943 and 1112 to take over the tasks listed. Of course, the specific designation with which the entrusted task is officially determined can be used, such as catechist, acolyte, lecturer, etc.
Temporary commissioning for liturgical acts according to can. 230, § 3 does not confer any special title on laypeople. (57)
It is therefore not permissible for lay people to be given designations such as "pastor", "chaplain", "coordinator", "moderator" or other titles that could confuse their role with that of shepherd, the sole role of the bishop and to the priest. (58)
The service of the word(59)
§ 1. The content of this service consists "in pastoral preaching, in catechesis and in all Christian instruction, in which the liturgical homily must have a prominent place". (60)
The actual exercise of these tasks belongs to the diocesan bishop as the head of the entire preaching service in his church, (61) and it is also available to the priests as his collaborators. (62) This service is also performed by the deacons in communion with the bishop and his presbytery. (63)
§ 2. Lay people, according to their characteristics, participate in the prophetic ministry of Christ. You are called to his witnesses and endowed with the faith and the grace of the word. All are called to be more and more "effective messengers of faith in the things to be hoped for" (cf. Hebrew 11.1) (64). Today the catechetical activity in particular depends very much on their commitment and generosity in the service of the Church.
Therefore, believers, and especially members of institutes of consecrated life and societies of apostolic life, can be called to participate appropriately in the exercise of the ministry of the Word. (65)
§ 3. In order for the cooperation according to § 2 to be effective, it is necessary to recall some conditions regarding the forms of such cooperation.
Can. 766 C.I.C. lays down the conditions under which the competent authority can admit laypeople to preach "in ecclesia vel oratorio". The expression "admitti possunt" already indicates that it is by no means a separate right such as that specific to the bishops (66), or an authority such as that of priests and deacons. (67)
The naming of such conditions "if this is necessary under certain circumstances or advised to be useful in individual cases" refers to the exceptional case in which, in addition, according to can. 766 always "iuxta Episcoporum conferentiae praescripta" is to be acted. In this last-named clause, the canon cited determines the primary source in order to make appropriate decisions in specific cases with regard to "necessity" and "benefit". For in the prescriptions of the Bishops' Conference, which require the "recognitio" of the Apostolic See, the criteria must be named which help the diocesan bishop to make appropriate pastoral decisions that are part of his episcopal office.
§ 4. In certain areas, due to the lack of clerical officials, there may be ongoing objective situations of necessity and benefit that suggest the admission of laypeople to the ministry.
The sermon in churches and oratorios can be allowed to lay people as a "substitute" for spiritual office holders or for special useful reasons, which are provided for in special cases by general church law or the bishops' conference. It can therefore not be understood as a simply common fact, nor as an authentic promotion of the layperson.
§ 5. Especially when preparing for the reception of the sacraments, the catechists should draw attention to the role and form of the priest as the sole dispenser of the divine mysteries for which one is preparing.
§ 1. As an outstanding form of the sermon, "qua per anni liturgici cursum ex textu sacro fidei mysteria et normae vitae christianae exponuntur", the homily is part of the liturgy itself.
Therefore, during the celebration of the Eucharist, the homily must be reserved for the spiritual minister, priest or deacon (69). Lay people are excluded, even if they fulfill tasks as "pastoral assistants" or catechists in some communities or associations. It is not about a possibly better gift of presentation or greater theological knowledge, but rather a task reserved for those who have been endowed with the sacrament of Orders. Therefore not even the diocesan bishop is authorized to dispense from the norm of the canon (70). Indeed, it is not a question of a mere disciplinary order, but of a law that affects the tasks of teaching and sanctifying, which are closely related to one another.
The occasional practice of entrusting the homily to seminarians who, as theology students, has not yet received the sacrament of Holy Orders, cannot be allowed. (71) The homily cannot be viewed as an exercise for future ministry.
Any previous norm that lay people permitted the homily to be used during the celebration of the Mass is replaced by can. 767, § 1 to be regarded as repealed. (72)
§ 2. A short introduction to promote a better understanding of the liturgy is permitted and, in exceptional cases, any testimony which, always in accordance with the liturgical prescriptions, on special days (day of the seminar, day of the sick, etc.) in Eucharistic celebrations are performed if this appears objectively appropriate to illustrate the homily regularly held by the celebrating priest. These introductions and certificates must not have any characteristics that could lead to confusion with the homily.
§ 3. The possibility of a "dialogue" in the homily (73) can sometimes be cleverly used by the celebrating minister for explanation without delegating the duty of preaching to others.
§ 4. The homily outside of the Mass can be recited by laypeople in accordance with the law and in compliance with liturgical norms.
§ 5. Under no circumstances can the homily be entrusted to priests or deacons who have lost their ecclesiastical status or who have given up the exercise of "spiritual service". (74)
The pastor and the parish
Lay people can, as is commendably done in numerous cases, take on tasks in parishes, in the areas of sick, nursing, educational and penal institutions or in military ordinariates, etc. and thus work in a fruitful way in the pastoral service of the clergy. An extraordinary form of cooperation, under the conditions provided, is that according to can. 517, § 2.
§ 1. The correct understanding and application of this canon, "si ob sacerdotum penuriam Episcopus dioecesanus aestimaverit participationem in exercitio curae pastoralis paroeciae concredendam esse diacono aliive personae sacerdotali charactere non insignitae aut personarum communitati, sacerdotem etochiult faculty, sacerdotem constituat curam pastoralem moderetur «, demands that this extraordinary measure be carried out with strict observance of the conditions contained therein:
a) "Whether sacerdotum penuriam" and not for reasons of convenience or a misleading "promotion of the laity" etc .;
b) provided that it is about "participatio in exercitio curae pastoralis" and not about leading, coordinating, moderating or administering the parish; According to the text of the canon, this is only available to a priest.
Precisely because these are exceptional cases, one must above all consider the possibility of, for example, using an older, still vigorous priest or entrusting several parishes to just one priest or a "coetus sacerdotum" (75).
In any case, the preference that the same canon establishes for the deacon should not be overlooked.
Finally, it is stated in the same canonical provisions that these forms of participation in the exercise of pastoral care tasks in the parishes cannot in any way replace the office of pastor. The regulation confirms that in those exceptional cases "Episcopus dioecesanus ... sacerdotem constituat aliquem qui, potestatibus et facultatibus parochi instructus, curam pastoralis moderetur". The office of pastor can only be validly entrusted to a priest (cf.can.521, § 1), also in cases of objective lack of priests. (76)
§ 2. In this regard one must also bear in mind that the pastor is his own shepherd (77) of the parish assigned to him and remains until he leaves office. (78)
The declaration of resignation from office upon completion of the 75th year of life does not allow the pastor to leave office "ipso iure". This only happens when the diocesan bishop - after careful consideration of all the circumstances - according to can. 538, § 3 has definitely accepted his resignation from office and informed him of this in writing. (79) In any case, in the light of the shortage of priests that exists in some places, special prudence is required in this regard.
In view of the right of every priest to exercise the functions associated with receiving ordination, unless there are serious health or disciplinary reasons, it is recalled that reaching the age of 75 is not a compulsory reason for the diocesan bishop to accept his resignation represents. This also applies to avoid a functionalist view of spiritual service. (80)
Organs of cooperation in the particular Church
These organs, which were required and tested positively in the course of the renewal of the Church in accordance with the Second Vatican Council and in accordance with canon law, represent a form of active participation in the life and mission of the Church as a community.
§ 1. The provisions of the Codex on the «Council of Priests» determine which priests can be members. (81) It is reserved for priests because it is based on the common participation of the bishop and the priests in the same priesthood and office. 82)
Neither deacons nor lay people can therefore enjoy the right to vote or stand for election, even if they are co-workers with the clergy, any more than priests who have been dismissed from the clergy or who have given up the exercise of the spiritual service.
§ 2. The diocesan and parish "pastoral council" (83) as well as the parish "asset management council" (84) to which lay people also belong, have only advisory voting rights; they cannot become decision-making bodies in any way. Only those believers who meet the requirements of the canonical norms can be elected for such duties. (85)
§ 3. The pastor is entitled to chair the parish councils. Therefore, decisions made by a council not chaired by or against the pastor are invalid and are therefore to be regarded as void. (86)
§ 4. All diocesan councils can validly express their own consent to an act of the bishop only if this consent is expressly required by law.
§ 5. Depending on local conditions, the ordinaries can use their own study or expert groups for special questions. These do not, however, represent parallel organs that deprive the diocesan priestly and pastoral councils or the councils at the parish level from their own responsibility, which is governed by general ecclesiastical law in cann. 536, § 1 and 537. (87) If such organs have arisen in the past on the basis of local customs or special circumstances, the necessary means are to be used to bring them into harmony with the applicable law of the Church.
§ 6. The "dean", who is also called dean or archpriest or otherwise, and his representative, "pro-vicar", "pro-dean" etc. must always be priests. (88) Therefore, non-priests can for these tasks valid not to be appointed.
The liturgical celebrations
§ 1. Liturgical acts must clearly represent the ordered unity of God's people as an organic community (89) and accordingly the intimate interweaving that exists between the liturgical act and the organically structured nature of the church.
This happens when everyone involved faithfully and devotedly performs the role that is theirs.
§ 2. In order to preserve the ecclesiastical identity of each individual in this area as well, abuses of various kinds that affect the determination of can. 907, according to which deacons and lay people are not allowed to recite prayers or parts of prayer - especially the Eucharistic prayer and doxology - or to perform actions and gestures that are reserved for the celebrating priest. Moreover, it is a serious abuse when lay people, as it were, take over the "presidency" of the Eucharistic celebration and leave the priest only the minimum in order to guarantee its validity.
In the same line, there is an obvious violation if someone who has not received the sacrament of Holy Orders uses vestments in liturgical celebrations that are reserved for priests and deacons (stole, chasuble or chasuble, dalmatic).
Even the mere appearance of confusion, which can result from deviant liturgical behavior, is to be avoided. Just as the clergymen are to be reminded of their duty to wear all the prescribed sacred vestments, so lay people cannot wear what is not their due.
In order to avoid confusion between sacramental celebrations under the presidency of a priest or deacon and other liturgical acts directed by laypeople, it is necessary that clearly distinguished formulations are used for them.
Sunday services in the absence of the priest
§ 1. Because there are no priests or deacons, Sunday services (90) are held in some places under the direction of lay people. This precious and delicate service is carried out in accordance with the Spirit and the special ordinances issued for it by the competent ecclesiastical authority. (91) In order to conduct these services, laypeople must have a special commission from the bishop who will see to it to give appropriate instructions regarding duration, location, conditions and responsible priest.
§ 2. Such divine services, the texts of which must be approved by the competent ecclesiastical authority, are always only provisional solutions. (92) It is also forbidden to add elements from the sacrificial liturgy, especially the "Eucharistic Prayer", to their structure not in narrative form, so as not to allow the believers to fall into error. (93) To this end, it must always be explained to the participants in such divine services that they are not a substitute for the Eucharistic sacrifice and that the Sunday commandment can only be achieved by celebrating Holy Mass (94) In those cases where distance and physical circumstances permit, believers must be encouraged and assisted in fulfilling the commandment as far as possible.
Extraordinary communion dispensers
For some time now, lay people have been working with spiritual officials in various areas of pastoral care so that "the priceless gift of the Eucharist may be recognized ever more deeply and so that one can participate in its salvific effect with ever greater intensity". (95)
It is a liturgical service that meets the objective needs of the faithful and is primarily intended for the sick and for liturgical assemblies where the faithful who wish to receive Holy Communion are particularly numerous.
§ 1. The canonical order regarding the "extraordinary communion giver" must be applied correctly so as not to cause any confusion. It stipulates that the ordinary giver of communion is the bishop, the priest and the deacon, (96) while the extraordinary giver of communion is both the acolyte and another according to can. 230, § 3 commissioned creditors. (97)
If there are reasons of real necessity, lay people can be commissioned by the bishop to act as extraordinary communion donors outside of the celebration of the Eucharist, "ad actum vel ad tempus" or permanently; the liturgical rite provided for this must be used for this purpose. In exceptional and unforeseen cases, authorization can be granted "ad actum" by the priest who presides over the celebration of the Eucharist. (98)
§ 2. In order for the extraordinary communion giver to be able to distribute Holy Communion during the celebration of the Eucharist, it is necessary that either no ordinary communion givers are present or that these, although present, are really prevented. (99) He can also carry out the same task if because of the particularly large participation of the faithful who want to receive Holy Communion, the Eucharistic celebration would drag on too long because there are too few proper communion dispensers available. (100)
This task is substitute and extraordinary (101) and it must be carried out in accordance with the law. To this end, it is appropriate that the diocesan bishop, in accordance with general ecclesiastical law, issue particular norms that regulate the exercise of this commission. It must be provided, among other things, that a believer in charge of this service is duly informed about the Eucharistic teaching, about the nature of his ministry, about the rubrics to be observed regarding the veneration owed to the high sacrament and about the order regarding the admission to communion.
In order not to cause confusion, avoid and abolish some practices that have emerged in some particular churches for some time, such as:
- the reception of communion by the communion givers as if they were concelebrants;
When renewing the declaration of readiness for priestly service in the Chrism Mass on Maundy Thursday, also include those believers who renew their religious vows or who are commissioned as extraordinary communion donors;
Â € œThe habitual use of extraordinary communion dispensers in Holy Mass with the arbitrary expansion of the concept of "numerous attendance".
The apostolate for the sick
§ 1. Laypeople can make valuable contributions in this area. (102) There are innumerable testimonies to charitable works and gestures performed on the sick by lay people, either individually or in forms of communal apostolate. This forms a primary Christian presence in the world of suffering and sickness. Where lay people accompany the sick in the most difficult moments, their main task is to awaken the desire for the sacraments of penance and the anointing of the sick and to encourage readiness for them, as well as in preparation for a good individual sacramental confession and also for receiving the anointing of the sick to help. With regard to the various forms of the sacramentals, the laity must ensure that their celebration does not lead to the opinion that the sacraments are those which are exclusively reserved for the bishop and priest. Under no circumstances can non-priests perform anointings, either with the anointing of the sick or with the non-consecrated oil.
§ 2. With regard to the dispensing of this sacrament, the canonical legal order falls back on the theologically certain doctrine and the centuries-old practice of the Church, (103) according to which the anointing of the sick is only validly donated by the priest. (104) This provision is in perfect agreement with the mystery of faith which is signified and realized by the exercise of the priestly ministry.
It should be emphasized that the anointing of the sick, reserved exclusively for the priest, is to be seen in close connection with this sacrament with the forgiveness of sins and with the dignified reception of the Eucharist. No one else can function as an ordinary or extraordinary dispenser of the sacrament; any such act is a simulation of the sacrament. (105)
Assistance with the wedding ceremony
§ 1. The possibility of delegating laypeople to assist in marriage may prove necessary under very special circumstances in the event of a serious shortage of ordained ministers.
However, it is dependent on three conditions. The diocesan bishop can only assign such a delegation in cases where there are no priests or deacons and only after having received a recommendation from the bishops' conference for his own diocese and the necessary permission from the Holy See. (106)
§ 2. In these cases too, the canonical provision on the validity of the delegation (107) and on the suitability, ability and attitude of the layperson must be observed. (108)
§ 3. Apart from the extraordinary case mentioned in can. 1112 C.I.C. in the absence of priests or deacons who could assist in the wedding ceremony, no spiritual minister can give a lay person to this assistance and to receive the marriage consensus according to can. 1108, § 2 authorize.
The giver of baptism
In view of the absence of spiritual officials, the faithfulness with which not a few Christians in painful situations of persecution, but also in mission areas and in other cases of particular need, have preserved the sacrament of baptism for the new generations is particularly praiseworthy. Except in an emergency, according to the canonical provision, if the ordinary donor is absent or prevented, (109) a lay person can be appointed extraordinary donor of baptism. (110) It is important to ensure that the interpretation is overly generous and that this authorization is avoided in a habitual manner.
For example, for the absence or hindrance that would allow lay people to be commissioned with the baptismal donation, the overburdening of the clerical minister or his home outside the parish area cannot be cited, as well as his lack of availability for the one provided by the family Day of baptism. Such justifications are not sufficient.
Management of church funerals
In the current conditions of growing de-Christianization and religious alienation, the moment of death and burial can sometimes offer a very favorable pastoral opportunity for spiritual ministers to meet directly with those believers who have given up religious practice.
It is therefore desirable that the priests and deacons personally preside over the funeral services, even among sacrifices, in accordance with local customs, in order to pray for the dead and also to approach families and to use the opportunity for appropriate evangelization.
Laypeople can lead church burials only in the event of an actual absence of ordained ministers and in compliance with the relevant liturgical norms. (111) For this task they must be well prepared doctrinally and liturgically.
Necessary selection and adequate training
It is the duty of the competent authority, in the event that the cases cited in the preceding articles of objective necessity for a "supplier" should arise, to select believers who are distinguished by healthy teaching and an exemplary way of life. For this reason, Catholics who do not lead a dignified way of life, do not enjoy a good reputation or are in a family situation that does not conform to the moral doctrine of the Church cannot be admitted to the exercise of these tasks. They must also have the necessary training to be able to perform the tasks entrusted to them appropriately.
According to particular law, they should perfect their knowledge and, if possible, attend the training courses that the competent authority will hold in the area of the particular Church (112) - but not in the seminars which must be reserved exclusively for candidates for the priesthood. (113) Care must be taken that the teaching presented is fully in accordance with the Church's teaching office and that it unfolds in a truly spiritual climate.
The Holy See recommends this document to the pastoral zeal of the diocesan bishops of the various particular Churches and of the other ordinaries, confident that its implementation will bear fruit for the growth of communion between ministers and lay people.
As the Holy Father noted, "the particular gift of each member of the Church must be prudently and firmly recognized, defended, promoted, emphasized and coordinated without interchanging roles, duties, or theological and canonical conditions". (114)
If, on the one hand, the shortage of priests is particularly noticeable in some areas, then in others there is a promising blossoming of vocations, which shows positive prospects for the future.Therefore, the solutions presented to the lack of ministers can only be temporary. At the same time, priority should be given to promoting the vocations of priests in pastoral care. (115)
In this regard, the Holy Father recalls that “in some local situations, generous and meaningful solutions have been found. The provisions of the Codex of Canon Law have opened up new possibilities, which must, however, be applied correctly in order not to be subject to the misunderstanding of regarding normative solutions which, because of the absence or lack of clerical officials, were intended for extraordinary situations as common and normal ”. (116)
The purpose of this document is to provide precise guidelines for ensuring the effective participation of the laity in such circumstances, while respecting the integrity of the pastoral ministry of priests. "It must be made understandable that these clarifications and clarifications do not arise from the effort to defend clerical privileges, but from the need to be obedient to the will of Christ and to respect the fundamental form he has indelibly imprinted on his Church". (117)
Their correct application will be of use to the laity within the framework of the living hierarchical "communio". They are called to develop all the rich possibilities of their own talents and to live them with "ever greater availability in the fulfillment of their own mission". (118)
The passionate recommendation of the Apostle to Timothy: »I swear you to God and to Christ Jesus ...: proclaim the word, stand up for it whether one wants to hear it or not; correct, rebuke, admonish ... be sober in everything ... faithfully perform your service "(2 Tim 4: 1-5) may particularly concern the spiritual shepherds who are called to carry out their own task, "to promote the general order of the whole Church ... and to urge the observance of all ecclesiastical laws". (119)
This grave duty forms the necessary instrument so that the rich energies that belong to every stage of church life are properly directed according to the wonderful dispositions of the Spirit and that "communio" become an effective reality on the daily journey of the whole community.
May the Virgin Mary, Mother of the Church, to whose intercession we entrust this document, help all to understand its intentions and to muster all strength for its faithful application towards greater apostolic fruitfulness.
Particular laws and applicable customary law that contradict these norms, as well as any powers granted "ad experimentum" by the Holy See or any other authority subordinate to it, are revoked.
The Pope approved these instructions on August 13, 1997 "in forma specifica" and ordered their promulgation.
From the Vatican on August 15, 1997, on the solemnity of the Assumption of Mary.
Congregation for the Clergy
Darío Castrillón Hoyos
Pontifical Council for the Laity
James Francis Stafford
Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
Joseph Card. Ratzinger
Tarcisio Bertone SDS
Congregation for Divine Worship and the Order of the Sacraments
Jorge Arturo Medina Estévez
Geraldo Majella Agnelo
Congregation for Bishops
Bernardin Card. Gantin
Jorge María Mejía
Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples
Jozef Card. Tomko
Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life
Eduardo Card. Martínez Somalo
Piergiorgio Silvano Nesti CP
Pontifical Council for the Interpretation of Legal Texts
1. Common priesthood and priesthood of ministry
2. Unity and diversity of official tasks
3. Irreplaceability of the ordination office
4. Co-operation of the laity in pastoral service
(1) Cf. Second Vatican Council, Dogm. Const. Lumen gentium, 33; Decr. Apostolicam actuositatem, 24.
(2) John Paul II, Apost. Write Christifideles laici, December 30, 1988, 2: AAS 81 (1989) 396.
(3) Synod of Bishops, IX. Ordinary Plenary Assembly on Consecrated Life, Instrumentum laboris, 73.
(4) Cf. John Paul II, Apost. Write Vita consecrata, March 25, 1996, 47: AAS 88 (1996) 420.
(5) Cf. Second Vatican Council, Decr. Apostolicam actuositatem, 5.
(6) Ibid., 6.
(7) See ibid.
(8) John Paul II, apost. Write Christifideles laici, 23: AAS 81 (1989) 429.
(9) Cf. Second Vatican Council, Dogm. Const. Lumen gentium.31; John Paul II, apost. Write Christifideles laici, 15: AAS 81 (1989) 413-416.
(10) Cf. Second Vatican Council, Pastoralkonst. Gaudium et spes, 43.
(11) Second Vatican Council, Decr. Apostolicam actuositatem, 24.
(12) Cf. John Paul II, address at the symposium on "The collaboration of the laity in the pastoral service of priests", April 22, 1994, 2, in: L'Osservatore Romano, April 23, 1994.
(13) Cf. C.I.C., cann. 230, § 3; 517, § 2; 861, § 2; 910, § 2; 943; 1112; John Paul II, apost. Write Christifideles laici, 23 and note 72: AAS 81 (1989) 430.
(14) See John Paul II, Encycl. Redemptoris missio, December 7, 1990, 37: AAS 83 (1991) 282-286.
(15) Cf. C.I.C., can. 392.
(16) Cf. especially Second Vatican Council, Dogm. Const. Lumen gentium, Const. Sacrosanctum Concilium, Decr. Presbyterorum Ordinis and decr. Apostolicam actuositatem.
(17) Cf. especially the Apostles. Write Christifideles laici and Pastores dabo vobis.
(18) C.I.C., can. 1752.
(19) Second Vatican Council, Dogm. Const. Lumen gentium, 10.
(20) Ibid., 32.
(22) Ibid., 10.
(23) See ibid., 4.
(24) John Paul II, apost. Write Pastores dabo vobis, March 25, 1992, 17: AAS 84 (1992) 684.
(25) Cf. Second Vatican Council, Dogm. Const. Lumen gentium, 7.
(26) Catechism of the Catholic Church (= KKK), 1547.
(27) Ibid., 1592.
(28) John Paul II, apost. Write Pastores dabo vobis, 74: AAS 84 (1992) 788.
(29) Cf. Second Vatican Council, Dogm. Const. Lumen gentium, 10, 18, 27, 28; Decr. Presbyterorum Ordinis, 2, 6; KKK 1538, 1576.
(30) Cf. John Paul II, Apost. Write Pastores dabo vobis, 15: AAS 84 (1992) 680; KKK 875.
(31) Cf. John Paul II, Apost. Write Pastores dabo vobis16: AAS 84 (1992) 681-684; KKK 1592.
(32) Cf. John Paul II, Apost. Write Pastores dabo vobis, 14-16: AAS 84 (1992) 678-684; Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, writing Sacerdotium ministeriale, August 6, 1983, III, 23: AAS 75 (1983) 1004-1005.
(33) Cf. Eph 2,20; Acts 21,14.
(34) John Paul II, apost. Write Pastores dabo vobis, 16: AAS 84 (1992) 681.
(35) KKK, 876.
(36) See ibid., 1581.
(37) See John Paul II, letter Novo incipiente, April 8, 1979, 3: AAS 17 (1979) 397.
(38) Second Vatican Council, Dogm. Const. Lumen gentium, 7.
(39) John Paul II, apost. Write Christifideles laici, 23: AAS 81 (1989) 430.
(40) Cf. Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Letter Sacerdotium ministeriale, III, 2: AAS 75 (1983) 1004.
(41) Cf. Second Vatican Council, Dogm. Const. Lumen gentium, Nota explicativa praevia, 2.
(42) John Paul II, apost. Write Pastores dabo vobis, 16: AAS 84 (1992) 682.
(43) Second Vatican Council, Decr. Optatam totius, 2.
(44) Cf. Second Vatican Council, Decr. Apostolicam actuositatem, 24.
(45) John Paul II, apost. Write Christifideles laici, 23: AAS 81 (1989) 429.
(46) Cf. C.I.C., cann. 208-223.
(47) Cf., ibid., Cann. 225, § 2; 226; 227; 231, § 2.
(48) See ibid., Cann. 225, § 1; 228, § 2; 229; 231, § 1.
(49) Cf. ibid., Can. 230, §§ 2-3, as regards the liturgical area; can. 228, § 1 for other areas of ministry; the latter paragraph also applies to areas outside the office of the clergy.
(50) Ibid., Can. 228, § 1.
(51) Ibid., Can. 230, § 3; cf. cann. 517, § 2; 776; 861, § 2; 910, § 2; 943; 1112.
(52) Cf.Congregation for Divine Worship and the Order of the Sacraments, Instr. Inaestimabile donum, April 3, 1980, proemio: AAS 72 (1980) 331-333.
(53) Cf. John Paul II, address at the symposium on "The collaboration of the laity in the pastoral service of priests", 3.
(56) Cf. Pontifical Commission for the Authentic Interpretation of the Codex of Canon Law, Responsio ad propositum dubium, June 1, 1988: AAS 80 (1988) 1373.
(57) See Pontifical Council for the Interpretation of Legal Texts, Responsio ad propositum dubium, July 11, 1992: AAS 86 (1994) 541-542. If pastoral assistants are commissioned to collaborate in the pastoral service of the priests as part of a celebration, this celebration should not coincide with the dispensing of the sacrament of Holy Orders. A rite similar to that for the commissioning of acolytes and proofreading must also be avoided.
(58) In this list of examples, one must include all linguistic expressions that are analogous or equivalent according to the linguistic usage of the various countries and that designate a management or representative role.
(59) With regard to the various forms of preaching, see C.I.C., can. 761; Roman Missal, Ordo lectionum Missae, Praenotanda. Editio typica altera, Vatican 1981.
(60) Second Vatican Council, Dogm. Const. Dei Verbum, 24.
(61) Cf. C.I.C., can. 756, § 2.
(62) Cf. ibid., Can. 757
(64) Second Vatican Council, Dogm. Const. Lumen gentium, 35.
(65) Cf. C.I.C., cann. 758-759; 785, § 1.
(66) Second Vatican Council, Dogm. Const. Lumen gentium, 25; C.I.C., can. 763.
(67) Cf. C.I.C., can. 764.
(68) Second Vatican Council, Const. Sacrosanctum Concilium, 52; C.I.C., can. 767, § 1.
(69) Cf. John Paul II, Apost. Write Catechesi tradendae, October 16, 1979, 48: AAS 71 (1979) 1277-1340; Pontifical Commission for the Interpretation of the Decrees of the Second Vatican Council, Responsum, January 11, 1971; Congregation for Divine Worship, Instr. Actio pastoralis, May 15, 1969, 6d: AAS 61 (1969) 809; Congregation for Divine Worship, Institutio Generalis Missalis Romani, March 26, 1970, 41, 42, 165; Congregation for Divine Worship, Instr. Liturgicae instaurationes, September 15, 1970, 2a: AAS 62 (1970) 696; Congregation for the Sacraments and Divine Worship, Instr. Inaestimabile donum: AAS 72 (1980) 331.
(70) Cf. Pontifical Commission for the Authentic Interpretation of the Codex of Canon Law, Responsio ad propositum dubium, June 20, 1987: AAS 79 (1987) 1249.
(71) Cf. C.I.C., can. 266, § 1.
(72) Cf. ibid., Can. 6, § 1, 2o.
(73) Cf.Congregation for Divine Worship, Directorium de Missis cum pueris Pueros baptizatos, November 1, 1973, 48: AAS 66 (1974) 44.
(74) For priests who have received a dispensation from celibacy, see Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Normae de dispensatione a sacerdotali coelibatu ad instantiam partis, October 14, 1980, "Normae substantiales", art. 5.
(75) Cf. C.I.C., can. 517, § 1.
(76) Avoid using the title "community leader" or other expressions with the same meaning as a designation for lay people when they are involved in the exercise of pastoral care.
(77) Cf. C.I.C., can. 519
(78) Cf. ibid., Can. 538, §§ 1-2.
(79) Cf. ibid., Can. 186.
(80) Cf. Congregation for the Clergy, Directory for the Ministry and Life of Priests Tota Ecclesia, January 31, 1994, 44.
(81) Cf. C.I.C., cann. 497-498.
(82) Cf. Second Vatican Council, Decr. Presbyterorum Ordinis, 7.
83 Cf. C.I.C., cann. 514 and 536.
(84) Cf. ibid., Can. 537.
(85) Cf. ibid., Can. 512, §§ 1 and 3; KKK 1650.
(86) Cf. C.I.C., can. 536.
(87) Cf. ibid., Can. 135, § 2.
(88) C.I.C., can. 553, § 1.
(89) Cf. Second Vatican Council, Const. Sacrosanctum Concilium, 26-28; C.I.C., can. 837.
(90) Cf. C.I.C., can. 1248, § 2.
(91) Cf. C.I.C., can. 1248, § 2; Congregation of Rites, Instr. Inter oecumenici, September 26, 1964, 37: AAS 66 (1964) 885; Congregation for Divine Worship, Directory for the celebration of Sunday services without priests Christi Ecclesia, June 10, 1988: Notitiae 263 (1988).
(92) See John Paul II, Address during the Ad Limina visit of the North American bishops, June 5, 1993: AAS 86 (1994) 340.
(93) Congregation for Divine Worship, Directory for the celebration of Sunday services without priests Christi Ecclesia, 35; cf. also C.I.C., can. 1378, § 2, 1o and § 3; can. 1384.
(94) Cf. C.I.C., can. 1248.
(95) ST. Congregation for the Order of the Sacraments, Instr. Immensae caritatis, January 29, 1973, proemio: AAS 65 (1973) 264.
(96) Cf. C.I.C., can. 910, § 1; see also John Paul II, letter Dominicae coenae, February 24, 1980, 11: AAS 72 (1980) 142.
(97) Cf. C.I.C., can. 910, § 2.
(98) 5 Cf.Congregation for the Order of the Sacraments, Instr. Immensae caritatis, 1: AAS 65 (1973) 264; Roman Missal, Appendix: Ritus ad deputandum ministrum S. Communionis ad actum distribuendae; Pontificale Romanum: De institutione lectorum et acolytorum.
(99) Cf.Pontifical Commission for the Authentic Interpretation of the Codex of Canon Law, Responsio, June 1, 1988: AAS 80 (1988) 1373.
(100) Cf.Congregation for the Order of the Sacraments, Instr. Immensae caritatis, 1: AAS 65 (1973) 264; Congregation for Divine Worship and the Order of the Sacraments, Inaestimabile donum, April 3, 1980, 10: AAS 72 (1980) 336.
(101) C.I.C., can. 230, §§ 2 and 3 stipulate that the liturgical services described there by lay people can only be performed "ex temporanea deputatione" or on an auxiliary basis.
(102) Cf. Rituals Romanum - Ordo Unctionis Infirmorum, Praenotanda, 17th Editio typica, Vatican 1972.
(103) Cf. Jak 5.14-15; Thomas Aquinas, In IV Sent. d. 4 q. U.N.; Council of Florence, Bull Exultate deodorant (DS 1325); Council of Trent, Doctrina de sacramento extremae unctionis, cap. 3 (DS 1697; 1700) and can. 4 de extrema unctione (DS 1719); KKK 1516.
(104) Cf. C.I.C., can. 1003, § 1.
(105) See ibid., Cann. 1379 and 392, § 2.
(106) Cf. ibid., Can. 1112.
(107) Cf. ibid., Can. 1111, § 2.
(108) Cf. ibid., Can. 1112, § 2.
(109) Cf. C.I.C., can. 861, § 2; Ordo baptismi parvulorum, Praenotanda generalia, 16-17.
(110) Cf. C.I.C., can. 230
(111) Cf. Ordo Exsequiarum, Praenotanda, 19.
(112) Cf. C.I.C., can. 231, § 1.
(113) "Integrated" seminars are not permitted.
(114) John Paul II, Address at the Symposium on "Cooperation of the Laity in the Pastoral Service of Priests", 3.
(115) See ibid., 6.
(116) Ibid., 2.
(117) Ibid., 5.
(118) John Paul II, apost. Write Christifideles laici, 58: AAS 81 (1989) 507.
(119) C.I.C., can. 392.
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