How ISRO left NASA behind
HUMAN HISTORY NATURAL SPACE. The lifeworld basics MONTAFON 1. Edited by Judith Maria Rollinger and Robert Rollinger
1 Edited by Judith Maria Rollinger and Robert Rollinger MONTAFON 1 HUMAN HISTORY NATURAL SPACE The basics of life
2 MONTAFON 1 HUMAN HISTORY NATURAL AREA The lifeworld basics
3 »The Montafon in the past and present« Published on behalf of the Montafon stand by Andreas Rudigier VOLUME 1 VOLUME 1
4 Edited by Judith Maria Rollinger and Robert Rollinger MONTAFON 1 HUMAN HISTORY NATURAL SPACE The basics of life
5 Client: Stand Montafon Edition of the series: Andreas Rudigier Edition of the volume: Judith Maria Rollinger and Robert Rollinger Editing and research: Peter Strasser Editing: Manfred Tschaikner, Rudolf Widerin, Friedrich Juen, Bernhard Maier Introductory texts at the beginning of the articles: Andreas Neuhauser Design: Hellblau, Lustenau Christoph Ganahl Edition 3000: set in Scala printed on Phönix Motion Xantur Print: Höfle, Dornbirn Stand Montafon: Schruns 2005 ISBN: Printed with the support of: EU (EFRE) Land Vorarlberg (Goal 2) Vorarlberger Illwerke AG
6 Erwin Bahl Foreword by the representative Judith Maria Rollinger / Robert Rollinger / Andreas Rudigier Introductory remarks on »montafon 1: Human History Natural Space. The lifeworld basics «Raphael Nagy Das Montafon. Natural structure Christian Wolkersdorfer Geological conditions of the Montafon and adjacent areas Richard Werner Climate and weather in the Montafon Dietmar Jäger The fauna of the Montafon Herbert Waldegger The flora of the Montafon Klaus Oeggl / Werner Kofler / Notburga Wahlmüller Pollen analysis of the vegetation and settlement history in the Montafon Klaus Pfeifer Extreme climatic history Spruce growth in the Montafon from 1500 to 1985 Eugen Gabriel / Arno Ruoff Sounds and forms of the Montafon dialects Hubert Klausmann The vocabulary of the Montafon dialects Guntram Plangg Two historical documents on Bartholomäberg Christian Stadelmann / Markus Stadelmann The Brown Swiss. A representation Bibliography List of editors and authors Photo credits Name register Place register 5
7 6 With the publication of a multi-volume Montafon history under the title “The Montafon in past and present”, the Montafon stand is pursuing the ambitious goal of describing the Montafon and its development in a previously unknown density and quality. Around 35 recognized experts shed light on various aspects of Montafon's history. This first volume is about the basics. What geological and climatic conditions make the Montafon a Montafon? What does the flora and fauna of the valley look like? What living conditions shaped the history of the settlement and the development of its own language and identity? What is exciting for me is not only that new findings from the latest research flow into the work, but above all the combination of questions and answers, which provides a unique overview and makes many connections recognizable for the first time. The volumes on the history of the Montafon are characterized by the fact that all of this is done at the highest scientific level, but still remains comprehensible and useful for the readers. The Montafon stand as an association of ten Montafon municipalities sees it as its duty to create the conditions for lively research to take place in and across the Montafon. Only if the view of the valley from inside and outside is sharpened can we develop and strengthen our identity. I am convinced that we have taken a step in the right direction with the publication of the work “The Montafon in Past and Present” and that we are meeting this claim. On behalf of the mayors of the state, I would like to thank everyone who worked on the creation of this work and the editor of the individual volumes. My special thanks go to the project manager Dr. Andreas Rudigier, who is a guarantee that the project will be a success in terms of content and organization. Mayor Dr. Erwin Bahl professional representative
8 24 The coral reef fossil site on the Itonskopf above Bartholomäberg proves that there was once a well-populated reef that is comparable to the Great Barrier Reef in Australia and had water temperatures of 23 to 25 degrees Celsius. Today the Montafon is far from tropical temperatures, but all the drinking water in the valley is of very good quality and is always refreshing with temperatures between three and twelve degrees Celsius. But Christian Wolkersdorfer does not only describe the Montafon waters, minerals, fossils and rocks in his article "Geological Conditions in the Montafon and Adjacent Areas". The author first addresses the geological history of the European continent. The Eastern and Western Alps meet in the Montafon. This is also where the oldest contiguous rocks in Vorarlberg occur, which were formed before the Alps were formed. These are, on the one hand, the metamorphic rocks of the Silvretta Nappe with an age between 300 and 600 million years and, on the other hand, the Permo-Carbon sedimentites in the Rellstal, Bartholomäberg and Silbertal, which were formed around 300 million years ago. In the chapter "Geological structural units of the Montafon", the rock units that make up the Montafon are characterized. The description begins in the north of the Montafon with the Upper Eastern Alpine Northern Limestone Alps, then comes to the Grauwackenzone, and finally ends with the Upper Eastern Alpine Silvretta Kristallin. The end of the line are the Pennine units, which emerge as so-called "windows" on the border with Switzerland and in Gargellen. AT.
9 Christian Wolkersdorfer Geological research of the Montafon 2 1 GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF THE MONTAFON AND ADJUSTING AREAS Summary Geological research in the Montafon has a long tradition that began in the 19th century and continues to this day. One of the main reasons for this intensive research history is the location of the Montafon in one of the geologically most interesting regions of the Alps: on the border between the Western and Eastern Alps. Three mountain ranges (Rätikon, Verwall and Silvretta) meet at this border and contain a colorful variety of rocks, the history of which goes back about two billion years. In the northern Montafon, light limestone predominates and builds up the Zimba or the Itonskopf. These limestone rocks are geologically the youngest solid rocks in the Montafon and sometimes contain beautiful fossils that are primarily of scientific importance. To the south there is a narrow strip of sandstones and volcanic rocks that run through the Rellstal via Bartholomäberg to the Kristbergsattel. Again south of this line, the Silvretta Kristallin begins with the light-colored gneisses and the greenish amphibolites, which together make up the majority of the Montafon. This is where the once important silver and copper mines of the Montafon occur, on whose heaps in front of the tunnels a plant community can be found that is unique for the Montafon. At the time when the glaciers covered the Montafon, the latest loose deposits in the valley were formed: the terminal and lateral moraines in the many karen and valleys as well as the debris deposits in the rivers and mountain streams, which are still subject to geological forces today. After the glaciers had thawed, the ice abutments on the flanks of the valleys disappeared and compensatory movements began, which continue and lead to landslides or scree avalanches. Drinking water is available in sufficient quantities in the Montafon. While the springs and wells in the north have harder water richer in lime, softer waters predominate in the south. These different properties of the drinking water in the Montafon are derived from the juxtaposition of the different rocks that emerged in the course of the valley's geological history. We do not know who first dealt with the geological conditions in the Montafon. But even the prehistoric people on the Friaga or the miners of the Middle Ages required extensive geological knowledge. Equipped with this expertise, they built their fortified hilltop settlement with suitable brook and moraine rubble or mined ores. The first geological map of Tyrol and Vorarlberg was published by Christian Keferstein () in the Geognostic Atlas in 1821. According to the map design by Friedrich W. Streit, there were four rock formations in the Montafon from north to south: the Alpine limestone formation, the Rothe sandstone formation, the slate formation and the gneus granite formation (Fig. 1). Franz Josef Weizenegger Alps Limestone Formation Rothe Sandstone Formation Schiefer Formation Gneus-Granit Formation Fig. 1: Detail from the hand-colored, first geological map of Tyrol and Vorarlberg by Christian Keferstein from 1821 based on a design by Friedrich W. Streit (copy from the Georgius University Library Agricola Freiberg / Saxony). () was the first to do systematic geological investigations in Vorarlberg, published Meinrad Merkle () posthumously the legacies of Weizenegger and supplemented them with his own mineralogical observations. The two researchers only knew the types of rock that Keferstein already differentiated. However, they described numerous economically important minerals from Vorarlberg and the Montafon. In the same year Johann Jacob Staffler () described a large number of Vorarlberg minerals known to him. 25th
10 26 Fig. 2: Austrian postage stamp with the Geological Federal Institute Vienna, founded in 1849. It was not until the 19th century that the strictly scientifically oriented geological exploration of the Montafon began. At that time, scientists and privateers came together all over Central Europe who pursued both scientific and economic interests and made private funds available for research. At the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries, the Freiberg Bergakademie in Saxony offered the first subject of "Geognosy" introduced by Gottlob Abraham Werner. Interest in this science quickly spread, and in 1837 the "geognostic-mining association for Tyrol and Vorarlberg" was founded. This association set itself the goal of researching the geological and geological conditions in Tyrol and Vorarlberg. Johann Nepomuk Friese was the first secretary of the association and taught general natural history at the University of Innsbruck until 1848 without geology or mineralogy being offered a separate subject. Under Friese, the association's board of directors sent the surveyor Alois Richard Schmidt () and his assistant Franz Klingler to Vorarlberg in 1839 to carry out "geognostic" investigations. In one of Schmidt's reports to the board of the association it says: The basement of Vorarlberg consists of Gneiß, which appears in great thickness in the southernmost part of the district, in the mountains of Montafon, as it extends in length into the cross of the Swiss and Tyrolean borders on the left bank of the Ill up to the vicinity of Tschagguns, and on the right bank of this river up to the outer soils between Schruns and St. Antoni, then in the lower part of the northern mountain range of the Silberthale shows continuously. Just four years later, Schmidt gave the association's board his geological map of Vorarlberg, which Archduke Johann had printed at his own expense (Fig. 3). Schmidt was the first to describe the Gargellen window, a geological peculiarity in which up to four younger rock units emerge from under a gap in the crystalline rock sequence. John Sholto Douglass (), after whom the Douglasshütte on the Lünersee is named, wrote several geological works in the yearbooks of the Austrian Alpine Club from 1866 to 1871. In it he proved himself to be a profound expert on geological and mineralogical conditions, which also benefited the Vorarlberger Landesmuseumsverein founded in 1857/58, of which Douglass was a member. In addition to him, another non-specialist also wrote a paper on the geological peculiarities of Vorarlberg and Montafon: the secondary school teacher Friedrich Zimmerl. It is thanks to him that the first descriptions of geognostic and ice-age phenomena are due. After one of the first geological state institutions in Europe, the Geological Reichsanstalt Wien, was founded on November 15, 1849 (Fig. 2), systematic research began in the Montafon. Eduard Sueß (), the famous Austrian geologist and initiator of the Viennese high spring pipeline opened in 1873, as well as Arnold Escher von der Linth () and Peter Merian () from Switzerland are among the experts working on the border between the crystalline in the south and the north The later director of the Vienna Geological Institute, Bergrat Franz Ritter von Hauer (), presented a new geological map of Tyrol and Vorarlberg. The Bavarian miner Carl Wilhelm Gümbel () described the geological conditions of the Vorarlberg Crystalline and the Limestone Alps in a comprehensive work in 1856. Presumably in order not to leave the geological exploration of Vorarlberg entirely to Swiss and German scientists, Ferdinand Freiherr von Richthofen () from Austrian Silesia started a geological mapping of the country and finally published it in the yearbook of the Geological Reichsanstalt. This was followed by many decades in which Vorarlberg found little research interest even in its own country. It was not until 1929 that Josef Blumrich () published a »geological history of Vorarlberg« that is still easy to read today, which is not always correct, but includes over 200 literary citations. 20 years later, Leo Krasser (born 1913) offered an “introduction to the geology of Vorarlberg” as part of the “Heimatkunde von Vorarlberg” published by Artur Schwarz, which was accompanied by a simplified geological map of the country. In the 20th century Otto Ampferer, Otto Reithofer, Rudolf Oberhauser, Oskar Schmidegg, Helfried Mostler and Heiner Bertle worked intensively in the Montafon. They made a significant contribution to the fact that numerous open questions about geological development could be answered. A preliminary conclusion is the geological map of Vorarlberg from 1998, which was published by the Vorarlberger Landesmuseumsverein and developed by Rudolf Oberhauser and Wilfried Rataj. Only a few researchers, including Leo Krasser, Rudolf Oberhauser, Hermann Loacker, Josef Blumrich,
11 27 Gneus transition from gneiss to mica schist Mica schist Granite-like rock Hornblende Serpentine Grauwake limestone Gÿps ore deposit Rother Kalk, with chert GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF THE MONTAPHONE AND ADJUSTING AREAS Fig. 3: Section from Richard Schmidtberg's hand-colored geological map of 1843 (Copy from the University Library Georgius Agricola Freiberg / Saxony). Stefan Müller, Walter Krieg and Heiner Bertle also chose Vorarlberg as the center of their lives. It is striking that many of the impulses that play a role in the geological exploration of Vorarlberg came from outside the country. This may be due to the fact that in Vorarlberg two large geological units meet with a complicated demarcation that stretches across two federal states and two states: the Western and Eastern Alps. This will be discussed in the next chapter. Chapter-related literature: Ampferer / Reithofer 1937; Bertle 1972; Blaas 1900; Gerhard et al. 1980; War 1977; Reithofer 1970; Schmidt / Friese 1843; Streit / Keferstein 1821; Association for geognostic and mining research in the state of Tyrol and Vorarlberg 1839; Wanner A mountain range emerges: the Alps Introduction The following chapter provides an overview of the formation of the Alps, which continues to this day (Fig. 4). As far as possible, technical terms have been avoided; however, they cannot be completely avoided if the process of mountain formation and the structure of the Montafon are to be explained in sufficient detail. Wherever technical terms appear, the generally understandable term usually follows. In addition, all important technical terms are explained in the list of terms. A discussion of the allocation of all rock units occurring in the Montafon to the individual Eastern Alpine units would go beyond the given framework, as would the question of whether between the Silvretta Kristallin and the northern 3 3.1
12 Thickness in meters Rock and time units Age in millions of years several 1000 Quaternary deposits Upper chalk sediments Aptych formation Radiolarite Allgäu formation Schattwald / Lorüns formation Kössen formation Plattenkalk Main dolomite with Raibl formation Arlberg formation Partnach formation Alpiner Muschelkalk Reichenhall formation / Buntsandstein Kristberg Formation / Oberkarbon Silvretta Crystalline Quaternary Tertiary Cretaceous Jura Rät Nor Karn Ladin Anise Scyth Perm Triassic Carbon Devon Silurian Ordovician Cambrian Precambrian, 7 144.2 65 1.8 Glaciers in the Alps The continents look essentially like the main folds of the Alps today Ammonites, belmnites and dinosaurs die from the collision of Apulia and Eurasia. The first folds of the Alps. The Pennine Ocean is created. The Tethys Ocean is narrowed. End of the Variscan mountain formation Pangea as a major continent Beginning of the Variscan mountain formation End of the Caledonian mountain formation Beginning of the Caledonian mountain formation Oldest rock components in the Montafon Formation of the earth Fig.4: Simplified stratigraphic table for the Montafon outside the Penninic units. The height of the boxes corresponds to the age or the relative thickness of the respective stratum unit in the Montafon. Colors as in the geological map Bartholomäberg / Silbertal. Limestone Alps have their own phyllite gneiss zone. The same applies to the contact between the phyllites and the deposits of permo-carbon, of which it is still unclear whether it is primary or tectonic. Discussing these questions is reserved for specialist literature. In order to make it easier for readers who have already dealt with other geological literature of the Montafon to understand, as far as possible all rock names used recently have been incorporated into the descriptions. Since an attempt was made here to use a consistent spelling of the units in accordance with the recommendations of the Stratigraphy Commission, the spelling may differ from other authors (for example: Silvretta crystalline versus Silvretta crystalline or Silvretta crystalline or Kössen formation versus Kössen strata or Kössen strata ). An explanation of the rock names can be found in the chapter "Rocks" below. The ideas of the formation of the Alps are not yet completely free of contradictions because of their complicated geological structure. This fact is due, among other things, to the fact that two oceans existed before the formation of the Alps (Tethys and Pennine Ocean), which disappeared again in the course of the earth's history due to the shifting of the continents. Nevertheless, with the previous knowledge and models of plate tectonics, the processes of mountain formation can be roughly explained. The age classification of rocks or the temporal limits of geological units are also subject to constant change, since scientific processing
13 GENEVA Mont Blanc Westalpen Periadriatic Seam Southern Vorlandmolasse Ostalpen Garda Northern Vorlandmolasse Chiemsee WIEN Lake SALZBURG Northern Limestone exchange Northern Limestone Northern Grauwackenzone window Northern Middle East Alpin Vorlandmolasse INNSBRUCK Tauernfenster LUZERN SCHRUNS Austroalpine Graz Paläozoikum Unterengadin Middle East Alpin Gurktal North Alps GRAZ Helvetikum window Drauzug ceiling Aar Gotthard- Middle East Alpin South Tyrol Massive Lower Eastern Alps Dolomites KLAGENFURT Lake Geneva Carnic Alps Bolzano Bergell Pluton Volcanic Complex South Karawanken Prealps Penninic Etsch Root Zone Bay Venetian Alps Southern Alps Adamello Insubric Pluton Crystalline AOSTA Southern Foreland Molasse Aiguilles- Rouges km Fig. 5: Structural structure of the Alps in 1997 (modified according to Möbus). Adria Rechnitz Fenster Nordkarawanken GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS 29 OF THE MONTAFON AND ADJUSTING AREAS continued to make progress. Correctly, the age of a rock formation should always indicate the accuracy of the determination method. In order to keep the text understandable, it was largely omitted. Over a length of 1200 kilometers and 150 to 260 kilometers wide, the Alps extend from the Passo di Giovi on the Gulf of Genoa to the Danube near Vienna and cover a total area of square kilometers. The Alps are usually divided into the French-Italian Western Alps, the Central Alps (between the Arve and Rhine), the Western Eastern Alps (up to the Katschberg) and the Eastern Eastern Alps. From a geological point of view, the Alps are a young mountain range whose formation dates back 300 million years and whose unfolding began 30 million years ago. Even today, the Alps rise by about half a millimeter each year, so that their formation is not complete and will probably continue for another 10 to 50 million years. The border between two important parts of the Alps runs through the Montafon: the Western Alps and the Eastern Alps. At the same time, several geological landscapes meet in the Montafon, the delimitation of which is not yet definitively certain. Due to certain differences in their formation conditions, the Alps can be divided into five geological units: Foreland, Helvetic, Penninic, Eastern Alpine (with Lower, Central and Upper Eastern Alps) and Southern Alpine, which is separated from the previous units by the Periadriatic Seam (Fig. 5). At the Rellseck in the Bartholomäberger municipality you can even see the first four of these building units when the visibility is good, and von Klebelsberg rightly writes that Vorarlberg is the Austrian federal state that has the greatest geological diversity in a very small area. We will also find this out when describing the geological conditions in the Montafon. In the Cretaceous Period, the aforementioned five deposit areas in the tropical belt of our earth bordered one another from north to south, and climatic conditions prevailed as in the Caribbean today. However, they were shifted and rearranged by continental movements during ore formation. Therefore, their current position no longer corresponds to that at the time of their creation. Several processes during mountain formation are responsible for this: the sometimes intensive folding of the rocks, the swallowing of large continental and ocean parts into the subsurface and the extensive horizontal shifts of individual mountain bodies ("nappes") on thrust orbits of more than 100 kilometers in length. Description of the development Before the Alps there were already several other mountains, whereby the Variscan mountains, whose formation ended about 300 million years ago, existed directly before the Alps. This was the transition from the Carboniferous to the Permian Age. Due to 3.2
14 30 of the collision of almost all continents at that time, the great continent of Pangea was formed, the remains of which can still be found today in Australia, Africa and North America. Remnants of the Variscan Mountains are the Black Forest, the Vosges, the Harz and the Ore Mountains, but also large parts of the later Alpine regions of Europe, for example the Montblanc Massif or the Silvretta Crystalline. Some of them contain older components that can reach 1.5 to 2.3 billion years. It is extremely difficult to decipher, as most of the information about these rocks was lost during the formation of the Alps due to the effects of pressure and temperature (metamorphosis). It is clear, however, that this oldest part of the Alps, the Old Paleozoic, was transformed by metamorphosis in the course of the Caledonian mountain formation and today forms the crystalline base of the Alps (»primary rock«). In the area of the Grauwackenzone, which is also exposed in the Montafon, the material removed from this former mountain range comes to light. Towards the end of the Carboniferous and the beginning of the Permian, the emergence of a new ocean, the Tethys, was announced, which separated the northern continent Laurasia from the southern continent Gondwana. This ocean stretched from Southeast Asia to the eastern Mediterranean countries and expanded into the Alpine region over the next 100 million years, with parts of the mainland sank below sea level along fault lines. Different living conditions characterized the numerous bays of the ocean, from which the Variscan mountains protruded as islands and provided plenty of weathering debris that was deposited in the shallow sea area of the bays. In the Eastern Alps and also from the Montafon, mainland deposits (terrestrial sediments) are known from this period (Permo-Carboniferous), whereas shallow water sediments predominated in the Southern Alps. During the Lower Triassic, the sea expanded from the east and south in a westerly direction. This created a tropical deep sea in the Montafon. At the turn of the Lower and Middle Triassic (Anis Karn, 240 million years ago) there was a brief retreat of the sea and shallow water sediments, salt and gypsum rocks formed. Reefs that also formed, however, indicate a beginning exchange with better quality water. The sea floor then began to sink again, creating fractures along which magmas could rise. Ore-bearing solutions circulated, favored by the hot melts of rock from the lower crust of the earth, and volcanoes formed where lava reached the surface of the earth. These fractures in the Triassic promoted the disintegration of the greater continent of Pangea, which can be traced further on the basis of the restless sedimentation in the Jura. Overall, these processes can be traced back to an eastward drift of Africa and the opening of the North Atlantic, which continued eastward between Africa and Spain and merged into the Pennine Ocean, which was formed at the same time. The latter formed a deep connection from the Atlantic in the west to the Tethys in the east and enabled the exchange of marine life. With the formation of the Pennine Ocean through the drifting apart of two plates 165 million years ago, the deposition areas of the most important structural elements of Vorarlberg's Helvetic Shelf Pennine Ocean Eastern Alpine Sea cover Sand and clay Oceanic crust Carbonate rock Crystalline rocks Volcanic effusions of the continents on the central ocean ridge Lower Jurassic (modified from Kollmann et al. 1982). created: Helvetic, Penninic and Eastern Alpine (Fig. 6). This made the Helvetic in the Jura the new continental edge of Europe, which merged into the southern German large block in the north. Initially, the Helvetic sediments were characterized by shallow marine formations near land, in which even coal was found. Later the ocean basin sank further and further, and characteristic marine deposits formed on the shelf, which also encroached on previously continental areas. In the Pennine Ocean bordering to the south, calcareous-clay sediments were deposited, which represent the distal deposit area, and ultrabasic and basic ocean floor rocks (ophiolites), such as those found in the Arosa Zone, developed in some areas. A threshold in the center of the ocean, the Briançonnais threshold, divided this ocean into the North and South Penninic Oceans. On the southern coast of the South Penninic Ocean was the Eastern Alpine Shelf, which had become part of Africa when the ocean opened up and with it drifted further eastwards as Apulia (Apulian spur or Adriatic plate). There carbonates, marls and clay marls formed, which can be found today in the Northern Limestone Alps. At the same time, the shelf sank to ever greater depths, sediment bodies
15 slid into the ocean basin, and finally, towards the end of the Jura 150 million years ago, pebbly deep-sea sediments in the form of radiolarites were deposited. Due to the east drift of Apulia, which was caused by the further opening of the Atlantic, ten million years later, in the Lower Cretaceous, the Tethys Ocean was narrowed and its ocean floor was swallowed (subduction). In addition, the adjacent continental margins and their sediment layers were compressed and lifted up. The Mediterranean Sea arose between Apulia and Africa, so that Apulia became an independent small continent, which in the north of the Helvetic Pennine Ocean East Alpine Fig. 7: Paleogeographical situation of the alpine deposit area in the lower Cretaceous (modified from Kollmann et al. 1982; legend as in Fig. 6). Pennine Ocean, surrounded to the east by the remains of the Tethys and to the west by the Mediterranean Sea. This small continent was now moving north towards Europe. As a result, it had a constricting effect on the base of the Eastern Alpine, led to a pressure-stressed metamorphosis and an uplift of the rocks on which reefs could form again in the shallow water, whereby the latter developments did not play a role in the Montafon (Fig. 7). At the beginning of the Upper Cretaceous, 100 million years ago, there was a collision in the Eastern Alps between the formerly African Apulia and the Eurasian continent and the oldest Alpine folding phases: the Pre-Gosau or Old Alpine folding. In places, large piles of sediment detached themselves from their base, were broken up into several ceiling structures and stacked on top of each other on the side facing the Pennine Ocean. Older stacks of blankets also came to lie on top of younger ones, and the metamorphosis ensured that old structures of the Variscan mountains cannot always be reliably distinguished from those of the Alps. Further uplifts initially led to the rock cover partly sticking out of the shallow sea as islands. Towards the end of the Cretaceous, 65 million years ago, these sank again below sea level and were partially crossed by Apulia together with the Pennine Ocean. This is how the early Alpine orogeny began 40 million years ago, which resulted in a revival of volcanism. The northern remainder of the Pennine Ocean was closed in the course of a short subduction phase, through which the former continental margin of Europe came far below the eastern Alpine nappes to the south. In the course of the Jungalpid orogenesis, the rock layers were intensely folded (Fig. 8). Fig. 8: Folded limestones in the Northern Limestone Alps on the Lünersee. Facing east. Due to the thickening of the crust due to the stacked rock cover, an imbalance in the mass distribution followed. Thus, 30 million years ago, compensatory movements began, which led to the elevation of the Alps at five millimeters per year. In the northern apron of the Alps, which were formed by the uplift processes and the continuing compression, an elongated sea basin sank: the Paratethys. The rock debris from the Alps accumulated in it and led to the formation of molasse sediments, which in their southern part were still absorbed into the Alpine folding and over a distance of four to six kilometers were driven over by Helvetic, Penninic and Eastern Alpine rock units. As seismic investigations in the area of the Silvretta Nappe have shown, the earth's crust with the ceilings stacked on top is around 50 kilometers thick there today. In the Miocene (Tertiary), 20 million years ago, the rock packets of Apulia's continuing northern movement could no longer evade through thrusts, but had to absorb the forces of mountain formation in other ways. This led to lateral shifts and narrowing of the Alps by a further 100 kilometers, with the shifts often taking place at existing movement joints. Many of today's Alpine valleys run in such young movement joints, which are characterized by more or less regular earthquakes. They include, for example, the Landwasser Gargellen lineament. The volcanic GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF THE MONTAPHONE AND ADJUSTING AREAS were a late consequence of the collision of Europe with the Eastern Alpine Shelf of Apulia
16 32 Fig. 9: Geological map of the Montafon (redrawn and simplified from Oberhauser / Rataj 1998). Stallehr Lorüns Tschagguns St. Anton Bartholomäberg Vandans Silbertal Schruns km Gargellen St. Gallenkirch Gaschurn Western Alps Falknis Nappe Prättigau Flysch (Gempi Schuppe) Sulzfluh Nappe, Sulzfluh Granite Arosa Zone Ophiolith Eastern Alps Northern Limestone Alps Parasolite and Crystalline Crystalline units Orthopedic and Crystalline units Silvretta Mixed gneiss Glacier Landwasser Gargellen Lineament Western Alps / Eastern Alps border Activities in eastern Austria. They began 14 million years ago and ended, interrupted by two quieter phases, 1.7 million years ago in southeast Styria. The Alps were last overprinted in the Quaternary, which began 1.8 million years ago and is characterized by a cyclical alternation of cold and warm periods. Large areas of the Alps were covered by glaciers with ice thicknesses of up to 1500 meters, which contributed to the formation of typical U-shaped trough valleys with steep slopes (Fig. 25). Above all in the foothills of the Alps, but also in the valleys themselves, the rock debris (moraines) abraded by the glaciers was deposited and changed the water network by influencing rivers or damming lakes. Many alpine lakes and today's rivers owe their formation to the action of the glaciers during their growth and thawing. A description of the quaternary deposits follows below. Since the border of the Western and Eastern Alps runs through the Montafon, we find deposits of the Penninic and Eastern Alps as well as old deposits that are part of the Variscan mountain range. The following chapter explains how the described building units are presented in the Montafon and where they occur. Chapter-related literature: Bertle 1979; Feldmann 1990; Frisch / Loeschke 1993; Froitzheim / Schmid / Conti 1994; Gwinner 1978; Klebelsberg 1961; Krenmayr et al. 1999; Machatschek 1929; Möbus 1997; Oberhauser 1980; Oberhauser 1998; Pfiffner / Hitz 1997; Judge 1978; Rothe 2000; Ruopp 2001; Schönenberg / Neugebauer 1997; Schweinhage 2000; Spiess 1985; Tollmann 1977; Trümpy Geological-tectonic building units of the Montafon Introduction The chapter "Geological-tectonic building units of the Montafon" describes the rock units that make up the Montafon. The description in the north of the Montafon begins with the Upper Eastern Alpine Northern Limestone Alps, then comes to the Grauwackenzone, the allocation of which is still controversial, and finally to the Upper Eastern Alpine Silvretta Kristallin ("Silvretta ceiling"). At the end, the Pennine units that emerge on the border with Switzerland and in the Gargellen window are described. Within each unit, the description begins with the oldest rocks and ends with the most recently deposited rocks (Fig. 9). There is no doubt that the oldest connected rocks in Vorarlberg occur in the Montafon, which were formed before the Alps were formed.These are, on the one hand, the metamorphic rocks of the Silvretta Nappe with ages of 300 to 600 million years, which thus encompass almost the entire age of the earth, and, on the other hand, the Permo-Carbon sedimentites with ages around 300 million years, such as those for example occur in the Rellstal, Golm area, Bartholomäberg and Silbertal. Up until 30 years ago there was still the opinion that older Silurian rocks were to be found in the Montafon. This can now be ruled out with certainty. Both the Permian deposits and 4 4.1
17 4.2 Fig. 10: Historic mine tunnel in Bartholomäberg (tunnel height approx. 1.50 meters). the rocks of the Silvretta Crystalline contain numerous ore deposits that have been mined several times over the centuries (Fig. 10). Volume 2 of this series deals with their formation and their position within the rock sequences in the Montafon. They are therefore deliberately excluded here. Northern Limestone Alps Rocks of the Northern Limestone Alps are exposed in the northern and western Montafon and belong for the most part to the Lech Valley blanket. Only a few isolated occurrences ("Schürflinge") between the Geißspitze and Tschaggunser Mittagspitze, on the Madrisa and in Klosters-Platz (Madrisa Zone) are assigned by some authors to the Northern Limestone Alps and by others to the Penninic units. They are dealt with here under the chapter "Northern Limestone Alps" because their rock sequences are almost identical. Although the Northern Limestone Alps in the Montafon only take up about a fifth of the area, they are the most varied unit with a wide variety of rocks. The base of the Northern Limestone Alps consists of rocks from the Alpine Verrucano red sandstone with a permoskythic age. In the Montafon you are open in the form of a ribbon that stretches from the Kristbergsattel to the Rellstal and the Alpe Lün and is only interrupted by the Illtal at Vandans. In addition, there are smaller, isolated occurrences on the Golm, east of the Lünersee and between Tschaggunser Mittagspitze and Plasseggen Pass. The sequence is characterized by quartz porphyry tuffs and -ignimbrite (see chapter 9.2) at the base as well as overlying, predominantly reddish sandstones and conglomerates, which are very well exposed on the St. Anton Bartholomäberg road. Locally, for example on the Kristbergsattel, they are accompanied by whitish-gray quartzites. In the Rellstal (Alpe Lün) and on the Golm as well as at Bartholomäberg there are three layers of quartz porphyry and at Innerberg there are only two layers, which are mostly visible as hardened ribs in the terrain. Their thickness varies between 20 meters in the fox forest and 40 centimeters in Innerberg. This rock sequence initially shows continental conditions with meandering rivers and volcanic activity. Towards the end of the sequence, the influence of the sea became noticeable, and coastal sands with undulating ripples formed, which are now available as quartzites (Fig. 11). Above the Permoskythian strata follows the aniseed Reichenhall Formation, which is sometimes referred to as the Punt La Drossa strata. Some authors even assign them to the lower Alpine Muschelkalk, since in places they merge into this without a gap. They occur in the Montafon in a strip a few meters narrow from the Rellstal via Rellseck to the Dalaas community forest and are usually difficult to follow. Taken together, the sequence of yellowish clay stones, limestones, dolomite stones, plaster of paris and rough-hewn stones reaches a thickness of up to 65 meters. At the time the Reichenhall Formation was formed, the climate was predominantly hot and dry, and the clayey weathering debris of the alpine Verrucano red sandstone was deposited in shallow sea lagoons. Occasionally lime and gypsum as well as salt were precipitated in it, with the latter two dissolving again over time, leaving behind the cellular appearance of the Rauhwacken. The Alpine Muschelkalk follows stratigraphically above the Reichenhall formation. This well-layered carbonate sequence, which is up to 160 meters thick, can be divided into two series in the Montafon, which correspond to the lower and upper Alpine Muschelkalk: Virgloria Kalk and Reifling Kalk. However, this subdivision is not made identically by all authors and also by Gutenstein / Fig. 11: Wavy ripples from the upper area of the Alpine Buntsandstein (scale 10 centimeters). GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS 33 OF THE MONTAFON AND ADJUSTING AREAS
18 34 Fig. 12: Thin section photo of fossil debris with snail shells, remains of sea lilies and mussel shells from the Alpine Muschelkalk (image width 4 millimeters). Fig. 13: Mudstones and limestone banks in the Partnach formation. Reifling Limes written. Rocks of the alpine shell limestone are exposed around the Zaluandakopf, in the Rellstal, the Kristakopf and in the Dalaas community forest as well as in the area of the Auserböden Jetzmunt Rellseck-Fritzensee and Geißspitze Tschaggunser Mittagspitze. In the lower area there are light to medium gray limestones rich in soul lines and ocher-colored dolomite stones. They owe the name "Wurstelkalke" to their often flat wavy ("sausage") surface. The limestone becomes darker towards the top and often contains dark brown to black chert nodules, which used to be used as tinder stones for making fires in some regions of the Alps. Occasionally, in the Reifling limestone layers with clusters of mussel shells occur, which are referred to as Lumachellen limestone (Fig. 12). These fossil remains prove that the limestone of the alpine shell limestone was formed in a relatively flat, weakly agitated sea area, which at least at times offered good living conditions. At the end of the period, the tuber limestones show that the sea was getting deeper and deeper and that there was a fairly large supply of silica, possibly due to volcanic activity. The Alpine Muschelkalk is followed by the 40 to 120 meter thick Partnach Formation, which is exposed in the same areas. Characteristic are the brown-black mudstones with a rough break, in which several layers of hard, whitish to yellowish limestone occur (Fig. 13). You can usually recognize the Partnach Formation by the flattening of the slope and the fertile Alps, as can be seen on the Rellseck. The Partnach formation was created in deep, oxygen-poor sea basins with digested sludge conditions that led to the death of flora and fauna. Limes were precipitated in short periods of time. Above the Partnach Formation comes the Arlberg Formation, both of which can interlink locally because they were deposited almost simultaneously. The Arlberg Formation is mainly made up of massive limestone and dolomite stones with interposed layers of mudstone and rough cheeks as well as chert stones that are up to 370 meters thick. They are open at the Alpila Alpe, in the area of the Lünersee and from the Rellstal to the Dalaas community forest, often form steep steps in the terrain and contain a rich microfossil fauna in many places. Since the carbonates are strongly fissured, they offer good opportunities for attack by weathering and consequently tend to karstification. As a result, numerous streams seep away in the Arlberg Formation and emerge again as springs at the base of the impermeable Partnach Formation or the clay stones within the Arlberg Formation. A special feature of the Arlberg Formation are limes, from which the formerly existing gypsum was removed and which are also called "knife-edged limes" due to the elongated holes. In contrast to the deep-sea Partnach Formation, the Arlberg Formation was deposited in a shallow sea that slowly subsided. The living conditions in the warm, slightly agitated water were friendly, so that a rich fauna developed. Younger than the Arlberg Formation is the Raibl Formation above it, which extends in a multi-stepped strip from Lünersee to Itons Alpe and from Rossberg to Tschaggunser Mittagspitze. Within this very varied sequence of layers, up to 190 meters in thickness, sandstones, limestones, dolomite stones, rough hewn stones, plaster and clay marl predominate, which are noticeable through an uneven surface form and terrain cuts. It would be going too far to describe them all. The Raibl Formation, however, is characterized by one stone unit: the plaster deposits that are in one at St. Anton
19 35 Fig. 14: Gypsum dolines near Küngs Maisäß. large mining operations were won and in the 1970s caused a long-lasting legal dispute between proponents of gypsum mining and those of environmental protection. These Raibler plasters appear in the near-surface area on the one hand in a massive, white and on the other hand in a banded formation and occasionally contain the mineral anhydrite. In the terrain, the gypsum-bearing layers are noticeable through gypsum dolines up to 20 meters deep, which sometimes give the landscape at the gypsum heads or at Küngs Maisäß a mysterious character (Fig. 14). The shallow water conditions of the Arlberg formation continue in the Raibl formation. Phases close to land, in which sands and clays were deposited, alternate with deposition conditions further away from land, in which limestone formed. At times the lagoon must have dried up, as the mighty plaster of paris shows. Since the sequences are sometimes repeated cyclically, it can be assumed that this milieu will change several times. Towards the end of the sequence, conditions calm down and a flat, tropical carbonate platform emerges again, which leads into the main dolomite. As the most important summit builder in the northern Montafon, the main dolomite stretches in the form of a ribbon from Dalaas via Lorüns and the Vandans stone wall to the Schesaplana and builds up the Davenna- and Itonskopf. It also occurs in a strip from Zaluanda to the Tschaggunser Mittagspitze, the summit of which it forms. It reaches a thickness of 500 to 1000 meters and consists almost exclusively of a monotonous, gray to brownish, sugar-grained dolomite stone, which is clearly banked, rhythmically layered and well articulated. Sometimes the dolomite stone has a high proportion of organic material and smells strongly bituminous when broken apart. Due to the mighty, rather monotonous and almost fossil-free sequence, a relatively long-lasting sequence can be assumed. Fig. 15: Coral limestone in the Kössen formation. Deposition conditions are closed, which was characterized by a shallow lagoon with limited fresh water supply, as the bituminous constituents show. Only towards the end of the time of the main dolomite did the situation improve and the supply of fresh seawater resulted in the formation of limestone. These limestones are slab limestone, which only occurs in a few places in the Montafon. For example, at the Schesaplana, Zimba, Bludenzer Mittagspitze and at Lorüns you can find the well-banked light limestone, which can reach a thickness of up to 60 meters and in places contain fossils such as mussels and calcareous algae. The Kössen formation follows the Plattenkalk. It builds up the Schesaplana, parts of the Zimba and the tectonic hollow between Itonskopf and Schwarzhorn. There are also smaller deposits south of Stallehr. Their thickness varies widely between 50 and 280 meters, and they consist of a heterogeneously composed sequence of mostly dark reef limestone, limestone, dolomite stone, marl and claystone with numerous fossils (Fig. 15). A special feature are the reef limestone on the Itonskopf, where the »Coral Reef« natural monument is under protection (see the chapter on fossils). In the terrain, the clay stones of the Kössen formation often form water-retaining layers in which smaller swamp areas arise. At the time of deposition, there was a carbonate platform divided into thresholds and basins with consistently good water conditions. Reefs formed on the thresholds and the fossil-rich bank limestone and clay marl were deposited in the basins. The Schattwald Formation, Allgäu Formation, Aptychen Formation, Radiolarite and Upper Chalk sediments were deposited later than the Kössen Formation. Their occurrence is limited to small areas on the Zimba, in Lorüns and Stallehr. GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF THE MONTAFON AND ADJUSTING AREAS
20 4.3 The Greywacke Zone 36 The Greywacke Zone is a 200-meter-wide strip of Upper Carboniferous to Permian rocks that lies between the Silvretta Crystalline and the Northern Limestone Alps and takes up one percent of the area of the Montafon. In the Rellstal, near Bartholomäberg and on the Kristberg, the zone is exposed with a lateral extension of around 15 kilometers, with a maximum thickness of 60 meters. Characteristic of the Grauwackenzone is an alternating layer of dark claystones, sandstones, arcoses, limestone and marl stones. It can essentially be divided into three series: lower base conglomerates, medium sandy-clay series with carbonate banks and medium-coarse-clastic upper series. According to their type locality on the Silbertaler Kristberg, these deposits are called the Kristberg Formation, but the terms Upper Carboniferous Strata or Palaeozoic are also used. In the basic conglomerates, which are located, for example, in outer Christ Mountain, there are pebbles up to 30 centimeters in size alongside fragments of tree trunks and brown algae (Fig. 16). They are deposited on the rocks of the Silvretta Crystalline and represent its erosion debris, which was partly formed in a sea basin. Dark, fine to coarse-grained sandstones are stored above the conglomerates, interrupted by dark, mica-rich mudstone layers and containing plant remains and a lot of organic material that is responsible for the dark color. Stress marks in the rocks indicate that new material was deposited before the underlying material had solidified (Fig. 17). Occasionally there are limestone layers in between, which indicate the influence of a sea. In the Innerberg and Glän areas, there are claystone layers with beautifully recognizable folds. The result is again formed by medium to coarse-grained conglomerates and sandstones, which again document a period of erosion in the hinterland. Their structure corresponds to that of the basic conglomerates, although more quartz pebbles occur. In summary, the deposits of the Grauwackenzone in the Montafon show the following: after a long land phase in which the Silvretta Kristallin was exposed to erosion, a basin formed within the mountain range that absorbed the debris removed from the coast. There was salt water in it, which was temporarily replaced by fresh water. Only towards the end of the sequence did the basin fill up again with salt water and form a sea in which coastal debris was deposited. This results in a reinforced Fig. 16: Conglomerates of the Grauwackenzone in Auserkristberg. Fig. 17: Contamination marks in sandstones of the Kristberg Formation on St. Anton Bartholomäberg Street. Image width 40 centimeters. Fig. 18: Alternating layering of thin-plate mica schist and thick-banked paragneiss of the Silvretta Crystalline. Evidence of erosion of the hinterland. Some of the deposits in the Grauwackenzone formed a very good slideway in the Northern Limestone Alps over the Silvretta Kristallin. Therefore, only small areas of the greywacke zone are exposed, because a large part is likely to have sheared off during the ceiling thrust and consequently disappeared.
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