How are jingles made

C. Composition and Instrumentation: Basics and Elements of Audio Branding Kai Bronner Nicer the brands never sound like ... Jingle all the way? 82 Basics of Audio Branding Mark Lehmann The Voice in Brand Sound 97 Hannes Raffaseder Sound Brands and Brand Sounds: The Significance of 102 Sound Color in Audio Branding Brands never sound better ... Jingle all the way? Basics of audio branding Kai Bronner Freier Consultant, Hamburg 1. Brands that sound - What sounds like? How do Nivea, Deutsche Bank or Porsche sound? Strange questions? Well, there are actually people who grapple with such questions, namely experts in audio branding and branded sound. But can a brand even sound? Perhaps we are approaching the question from a different angle: What does the engine of a Porsche 911 sound like? A Porsche has its own characteristic engine sound and sounds different from a BMW or a FORD, because almost every automobile manufacturer employs specialist teams of psychoacousticians and engineers who take care of the acoustic optimization of the vehicles (see article M. Haverkamp). At BMW, for example, a specific sound profile is created for each model based on the original engine noise. But not only the engine is acoustically optimized, the sound of the indicators and window lifters, the various warning and advisory tones as well as the noise when the doors slam are not left to chance. However, it is not only in the automotive sector that psychoacoustics are concerned with product sound, vacuum cleaners, hair dryers and razors are also given an acoustic design. At Nestlé, a team of researchers has even developed a “crustimeter” that records the chewing and cracking noises when eating. In this way, every food item receives an acoustic fingerprint and the sound patterns that attract sales are saved in a company's own sound archive. The ear eats too! While psychoacoustics and engineers deal with the product sound in acoustic product design, in audio branding the focus is primarily on the brand sound, i.e. the acoustic branding within brand communication. When it comes to audio branding, brands never sound better ... Jingle all the way? 83 brand experts and musicians at work. Design objects are not the products themselves, but the acoustic channels through which the brand communicates, i.e. radio, TV and cinema advertising, internet, trade fair appearances, telephone queues, etc. However, audio branding and acoustic product design are not clearly delimited areas. So sounds z. B. when starting the operating system of a computer, a manufacturer-specific brand signal and cell phones can signal the receipt of an SMS by playing an audio logo. The technical progress also makes it possible that the teapot no longer whistles, but plays a melody and the coffee machine informs with a melodious voice “The coffee is ready” or even plays the song of the same name by Peter Cornelius. The sound of a Porsche engine is a core component of brand value and brand-specific properties such as sportiness, dynamism and performance should be associated with it. In addition, a Porsche has to sound unmistakable if the product sound is to be used to differentiate the brand. Brand values ​​and brand differentiation are also the focus of their work for specialists in brand sound. They create specific soundscapes that reflect the brands' sound and give them an acoustic identity. The result is a sound identity that can be described by musical parameters such as tempo, rhythm, instrumentation, melody, etc. and made audible via sound samples or sound collages. This sound identity forms the basis for the acoustic brand presence and the use of acoustic branding elements. It can also serve as a guideline and orientation for acoustic product design. The audio branding process 84 Kai Bronner Already the terms reveal parallels to the visual corporate design. Audio branding is indeed to be seen as an extension of the corporate identity to include the dimension of sound and there are not only conceptual analogies between corporate sound and visual corporate design. On the acoustic level, for example, an audio logo represents the counterpart to a visual logo. 2. Audio branding elements - what makes brands sound like? 2.1 Audio logo The audio logo represents the acoustic identification element of a brand and is often combined with the (animated) visual logo. It should of course fit the brand (brand fit; see article S. Lepa), be memorable, flexible, concise and unmistakable. When it comes to distinctiveness, we touch on the area of ​​the ability to be protected, which becomes important when it comes to protecting yourself from imitators or “soundalikes”. What is self-evident in the visual area is more difficult in the acoustic area, since the clear graphical fixation and description of sound is not without problems (see article M. Loeber). Let's take a look at what is probably the best-known German audio logo, the acoustic trademark of Deutsche Telekom. It consists of five individual tones that are less than a second long. The familiarity of this tone sequence results not only from its simplicity and good memorability, but is also the result of consistent use in the communication measures of Deutsche Telekom and an enormous media budget, which ensures high advertising pressure. In addition, the well-known five tones are in a frequency range to which the human ear is particularly sensitive. They can hardly be overheard and follow you during the TV commercial break into the kitchen, where you are getting a beer from the fridge. An audio logo of a completely different kind consists of a heartbeat played backwards in combination with a sound noise associated with technology. It is Audi's acoustic trademark.1 It is also very well known, although it is easier to ignore as it is mainly made up of lower frequencies that our ears are less likely to perceive. That is also the reason why it loses its effect when it is played through small loudspeakers, which play the deep _____________ 1 The founder August Horch translated his last name into Latin. Audi is the imperative of audire (German: to hear, to listen) and translates as “Listen!” Or “Listen!”. The brands never sound nicer ... Jingle all the way? 85 frequencies do not play back. It therefore makes no sense to integrate the audio logo into a telephone announcement, because today's telephone lines only transmit medium and higher frequency ranges. When it comes to playback via different media and playback devices, the Herzschlag-Audio-Logo lacks flexibility. The Telekom Audio logo also proves to be much more flexible when it comes to variation. It can be instrumented in different ways without losing its recognition. In some versions of the TV commercials, the five tones sounded like football fanfares. As a result, a reference to the content of the commercials or to the advertising environment and the advertised target group was created, e.g. B. during the half-time break of football games or in the advertising blocks during the sports show. In view of the high advertising pressure of Telekom and the consistent use of the audio logo in the commercials, the variation of the audio logo also has the function of preventing wear-out effects2 and possible reactances3 of the recipients. The special effect of the Audi audio logo, however, is based on its unique sound. By combining a pounding heartbeat with a sound that sounds technical, on the one hand the slogan “Vorsprung durch Technik” is communicated and, on the other hand, the emotional component is emphasized, which also plays a major role when buying a car. It thus solves the perhaps most difficult task of an audio logo in a clever way: It expresses important brand values ​​in the shortest possible time. As part of its new campaign, Philips also had an audio logo developed that is in line with the new brand promise “sense and simplicity”. Two bright, clear and discreetly orchestrated tones stand for simplicity, uncomplicatedness, progressiveness and for technology with a sense for the essentials. 2.2 Jingle, acoustic brand theme The expression audio logo for an acoustic trademark is relatively new and has only established itself over the last few years with the increased awareness of music and sound as part of the corporate identity and its branding functions. In the past one spoke of the identification motif or jingle, whereby the jingle actually represents the setting of the advertising slogan. A _____________ 2 empirically verifiable phenomenon that certain communication instruments wear out or wear out over time. 3 (Defiant) reaction of a person to an influence that is perceived as excessive, especially if there is a feared restriction of freedom of expression and behavior. 86 Kai Bronner Jingle functions as a “sound poster” 4 and acoustically conveys the advertising message (“Haribo makes children happy, and adults too”, “Mars makes mobile, sports and games at work”). If the connection of slogan and music is firmly linked in the sung jingles and anchored in the consciousness of the consumer, they are also used purely instrumentally, the transition to the audio logo is fluid. The acoustic brand theme, which Tchibo integrated into the commercials for its consumer goods - the so-called non-food items - and was developed by the Hamburg audio consuting group acg, consists of a small melody that goes back to the slogan "A new world every week" is phrased. A new TV spot is running every week in which a certain theme is advertised and the music style of the background music changes depending on the theme. The acoustic brand theme is appropriately orchestrated, varied and integrated into the respective music. However, it always has its permanent place in the binding of the spots, where it takes on the function of an audio logo or jingle. 2.3 Brand Song If you visit on the Internet, after a few seconds you will hear a whistled sequence of tones that somehow seems familiar. It is the Aral audio logo. The 3 whistled tones that make up it are part of the melody of the promotional song that temporarily accompanied the Aral TV and radio spots. Such advertising songs, which are used in TV, radio and cinema spots, usually extend over the entire length of the spot, support the visual and linguistic message content and create atmosphere. The effect of some of these promotional songs is so strong that - in contrast to pure "commercial songs" - they not only serve as background music and background music, but also become real trademarks, "brand songs" (in the context of acoustic branding, brand songs naturally become consciously designed or selected based on the acoustic brand identity). Once they have reached this status, they are varied, adapted to current tastes and used in advertising over a longer period of time. The song “Like Ice in the Sunshine”, for example, has accompanied Langnese's advertising for many years and has also been reinterpreted by well-known artists from such diverse musical genres as techno, hip hop, pop and country. A distinction can be made between pieces specially composed for advertising purposes and existing titles. _____________ 4 Cf. Helms 1981, p. 45 The brands never sound more beautiful ... Jingle all the way? 87 The existing titles are used in the original or adapted. The song from the Aral spots, from which the audio logo emerged, comes from the film music of a German production at the end of the 1960s. However, Aral had previously used licensed "original music" in advertising. In a TV commercial in which a man who has run out of gas does not fill up his canister at the first gas station, but rather continues to the Aral gas station, Fats Domino's hit “I'm walking” is thematically appropriate Used in 1950s. Another very well-known brand song is “Bacardi Feeling” by Kate Yanais, which was composed especially for the spirits manufacturer and even climbed to number one in the German single charts. The Beck’s beer brand has also produced a true classic in commercial song history with the song “Sail away”. The green sailing ship of Beck’s Werbung, which symbolizes the values ​​of freedom, adventure and freshness as a key visual, received a suitable acoustic brand signal with the song. After the German singer Hans Hartz first lent his voice to the song, he replaced him as an interpreter in 1995 as part of the more international orientation of the Joe Cocker brand. The rough, distinctive voices of these interpreters convincingly conveyed the values ​​of masculinity, freedom and adventure that are important for the brand image. 2.4 Brand Voice Voices are an important design element in acoustic brand communication (see article M. Lehmann). As just shown, the sound of the voice creates certain associations and arouses emotions. However, this applies not only when using the voice as an instrument in the form of singing, but also when speaking. In this case, language features such as rhythm, intonation, intonation and tempo, which are also summarized under the term prosody, play a role. The brand voice represents the brand and speaks for it, which is why the personality of the speaker should match the brand personality. The way of speaking and expression must correspond to the basic tone of the advertising, i.e. the tonality that is defined in the context of the copy strategy. Brand Voice is an outstanding element in Ikea's German commercials. The off-speaker with a clear Swedish accent takes on a friendly and jovial tone and the customer is addressed directly with "You", as is also the case with the announcements in Ikea furniture stores.5 It could therefore be with the speaker be a typical Ikea employee. _____________ 5 One reason for this, however, is that the Swedish "Sie" ("ni") is rarely used in everyday language. 88 Kai Bronner 2.5 Sound-Icon, Sound-Symbol While the audio logo has already firmly established itself as a core element of audio branding, “sound icon” or “sound symbol” are terms that are rarely encountered. This is mainly because - compared to visual branding - audio branding is still in its infancy and there is no consistent terminology or set of generally recognized audio branding elements. The present anthology should therefore also serve as a basis for discussion and guideline in order to support the general consensus building and thus also contribute to the development of a uniform system of terms. Sound icons are the smallest or shortest audio branding elements. They can be part of the audio logo or a brand song and, in the function of an icon6, refer directly to features or properties of the brand's performance. Well-known sound icons are the “Flensburg plop” or the “hiss” when opening a Coca-Cola bottle, which for several years was a striking element in the beverage company's adverts, which were always very sophisticated in terms of sound. Actually, sound icons are what are called auditory icons in human-machine communication for auditory user interfaces (AUI; see Article A. Day). They represent realistic everyday noises or stylized variants of them and thus have a real meaning. They do not have to be learned how they differ from the so-called earcons. Analogous to visual icons, earcons transmit information on the acoustic level. They are abstract acoustic messages and must therefore first be learned by the user. This is illustrated by an example: If you play a quiz on your PC and answer a question correctly, the sound of applause would be an auditory icon, whereas two short tones of the same frequency would represent an earcon. The Konstanz agency for multisensory communication Anemono has developed a branded sound for the software solution provider Avira, which, in addition to branding motifs and branding, also includes functional sounds such as: B. "System cleaned" and "Virus found". These functional sounds convey information like an earcon, but are also based on the sound space derived from the Avira brand identity. These are sound objects that are designated as elements of the brand sound with the term sound symbol (see also footnote 6). _____________ 6 An icon is a sign that relates to its designated object through the feature of similarity. This can be visual, aural or other kind.A distinction must be made between the icon and the symbol, which is an arbitrary designation. The brands never sound nicer ... Jingle all the way? 89 2.6 Sound-Ground, sound area While sound objects represent short sound events, sound areas or sound grounds are longer lasting "sounds" ("string areas" or "synthesizer areas"). They can form a kind of sound carpet and act in the background. The telecommunications company O2, for example, underlays its commercials with “soft”, “spherical” sound surfaces to match the images with the characteristic water bubbles.7 Analogous to the figure-basic design principle, a sound atmosphere, a so-called soundscape, can be created by combining sound objects, sound surfaces and other sound elements or ambient sound can be generated that corresponds to the character of the brand, allows associations with the brand personality and is thus perceived as a brand signal. Areas of application are trade fairs and exhibitions, the Internet, company buildings, telephone waiting loops, presentations, service centers and sales rooms. Brand sound elements and their areas of application _____________ 7 The sound surfaces are based on the intro of the song "Release The Pressure" by the English group Leftfield. 90 Kai Bronner 2.7 Company anthem In addition to the external effect at customer and partner level, the audio branding elements can also develop their effect within the brand's company. Suitable fields of application are company events, internal company presentations, the company cell phones of the employees with ring tones and mailbox sound design as well as the system sounds of the company computers. By using it in internal corporate communication, the employees' identification with the company can be strengthened and the emotional bond increased, which can lead to an improved sense of belonging and togetherness (“we-feeling”) and can be associated with an increase in employee motivation. A company anthem is best suited for this purpose (see article K. Kilian). Although company anthems are not intended for the public, almost everyone knows the tune of "We are Europe". The company anthem of the petrol station operator DEA, which has meanwhile been absorbed by the Shell Group, is a specially texted version of the brand song “Here is DEA, here you fill up”, which was developed by Groves Sound Branding and which owes its high profile to its use in TV spots. 3. Music Marketing and Brand Entertainment - Where do brands sound like? Aral's promotional song "I'm walking" mentioned above was so well received that it was later offered for sale on CD along with other similar-style titles in Aral gas stations. This CD marked the beginning of a whole series of CD compilations that were published under the title "Aral Music Collection". However, Aral wasn't the first brand to incorporate music into their communications in this way. In 1986 Levi's started his "Back to the Basics" advertising campaign, which has had a decisive influence on the use of music in advertising. The campaigns' advertising spots, which were broadcast across Europe, drew on more or less well-known classics from soul and rock music history, which corresponded very well with the brand identity of the classic jeans model “501”, motto: “originals stood the test of time”. The campaign not only resulted in a revival of the jeans model, but also of the promotional songs used. Due to the chart success of the songs, different collaborations developed between the brand companies and the music industry. The result was a large number of CD compilations under the brand names, compilations of advertising hits on CD, but also other marketing and sponsoring activities of the brand manufacturers in the music sector. The cooperation between Beck’s and Joe Cocker was not limited to the obligation of the musician for the promotional song. Beck’s also sponsored his 1997 tour of Germany under the name "Sail away '97". To be a prettier the brands never sound ... Jingle all the way? To establish a close connection between artist, tour and brand, the tour was supported by an extensive package of measures as part of integrated communication via various communication channels of the Beck’s brand. The inclusion of music in marketing and brand communication is not limited to compiling CD compilations or sponsoring musicians (see Article C. Rings). Brands are increasingly providing content and offers in order to strengthen the relationship with the consumer and to increase brand loyalty; this is known as brand entertainment. In the course of technical progress, digitization and media convergence, the range of audible applications is increasing. B. pod and videocasts, audio books, etc. (see article L. Bernays). The selection and presentation of the content, including the formal and content coordination within the framework of integrated communication, is gaining in importance. If you want to optimally use the brand potential contained therein through a brand-appropriate acoustic design and presentation, there is no getting around audio branding. Mercedes-Benz - moving music for mobile people A brand that combines the possibilities of audio-visual information transfer with the advantages of brand entertainment is Mercedes-Benz. On the website of the Mercedes-Benz Brand World, for example, you can hear how “a perfect summer sounds” and “test drive” the various convertible models in an acoustic world of experience. The right music for the jaunts is available on the Mercedes mixed tape. The automobile manufacturer offers free music there for download. Every 6-8 weeks a new mix of carefully selected pieces by international, mostly unknown artists appears. The genres range from melodic pop to NuJazz to electronically influenced pieces and relaxed downbeats, far from the uniformity of the hit parade. There is no style limit. The criteria for the selection are - in accordance with the brand values ​​of Mercedes - quality, innovation and uniqueness. The project also offers a platform for newcomers and talented youngsters, as everyone can send in or upload their music and thus have the chance to be one of the presented artists at one of the next editions of Mixed Tape. What began with mixed tape has meanwhile expanded into an extensive range of mobile entertainment. In order to meet the zeitgeist of an increasingly mobile society, Mercedes offers mixed tapes as well as pod and videocasts as well as short stories in audio format, so-called "text tracks". As a result, the connection between brand and audio-visual content has been meaningfully supplemented by integrating a mobile playback device in the vehicles. The iPod 92 Kai Bronner can be connected to the car's audio system via an interface kit. Operation and title selection are carried out via the multifunction steering wheel and the instrument display is used for title navigation. 4. Importance and significance of audio branding - why do brands sound like? In addition to the increasing number of communication instruments with acoustic components, audio branding and corporate sound are also gaining in importance due to the changing market and communication conditions. The explosive increase in the number of brands and products requires more measures and efforts to sharpen the brand profile and differentiate yourself from the competition. When brands are not only visible but also audible through audio logos, brand songs and characteristic brand sound worlds, they can better stand out from the "sea of ​​offers" and be perceived. An advertising banner on the Internet that one would normally not even notice or notice can arouse interest through acoustic signals. Perhaps you even have to “scroll down” to get the sounding banner into view in the first place. Then you have not only aroused the attention of the potential customer, but at the same time prompted him to take action, which significantly increases the effect of the advertising contact. As the range of brands and products increases, so does the number of communicative branding measures. The classic communication measures are supplemented by other activities such as events, sponsoring and product placement. In addition, the Internet has established itself as a medium that opens up new communication possibilities. The demands on media planning are consequently increasing and the determination of an optimal media mix is ​​becoming more and more difficult. In addition, the consumer is no longer able to absorb the wealth of information and increasingly reacts negatively to advertising. So that a consistent and clear image of the brand can still be conveyed to him, the measures of brand communication must be coordinated within an integrated communication. However, through the targeted use of music and acoustic branding elements as part of consistent acoustic branding, the decreasing efficiency of communicative advertising measures can be counteracted. There are several reasons for this: - The vegetative effects of music, which can be used to activate and arouse attention, are also effective under distraction and over several repetitions. - The sense of hearing is not directed, i.e. H. the consumer can look the other way but cannot listen. The brands never sound nicer ... Jingle all the way? 93 - Musical messages are processed more easily than text messages because they require less cognitive effort and also have an unconscious effect. - With the so-called “visual transfer”, the associated commercial can be created in front of the “mind's eye” with just a few bars of advertising music. So z. B. by combining radio with TV spots visual transfer effects are achieved and as a result the advertising effect and the efficiency of the communicative measures are increased. Large differences in quality and function between branded products are hardly noticeable these days due to tough competition and the often saturated markets. Differentiation based on quality and product characteristics is becoming increasingly rare, brand differentiation is increasingly taking place through communication and brands compete against each other in a real communication competition.8 In this competition, more and more emotional and experience-oriented factors play a role, because strong brands are also characterized by themselves a high emotional bond. And how could emotions and experiences be conveyed better than through music? What would the effect of a Bacardi spot be without the right sound? For these reasons, one of the main tasks of brand communication and advertising today is to convey consumer-relevant experiences and to charge the brand emotionally. Compared to the factual profile, the experience profile gains in importance. This is also a major reason why branding across multiple senses, multisensual branding, is seen as one of the central topics of brand communication of the future (see article Karsten Kilian “Acoustics as a sonorous element ...”). This development is particularly clear using the example of Deutsche Bank. “Passion for performance” is the current advertising slogan of this rather conservative bank. The associated TV commercials were temporarily accompanied by a rocky guitar sound, which is currently experiencing a kind of revival and is even considered "hip" among 20-30 year olds. That may be one reason why many of the newer audio logos are based on a guitar sound (often with a “wah-wah” effect). But here the question arises as to whether this does not cause irritation in the perception of the brand? How is the advertising received by a “classic” customer of Deutsche Bank and how can slogan and music be associated with the brand core values ​​and the brand personality? Since the rock song - with a short English vocal part - also shows no recognizable reference to the action of the commercial and _____________ 8 Cf. Esch 2005, p. 33 94 Kai Bronner therefore does not take on any image-supporting or dramaturgical function, the impression is rather that Deutsche Bank try to reach a younger audience this way. Whether that can be achieved using this type of music remains extremely questionable. A study comes to the conclusion that music in commercials makes the source of the message - i.e. the brand - appear untrustworthy if it is perceived as unsuitable. Even if the music corresponds to the preferences of the target group.9 The results of the studies on “musical and voice-fit” also highlight the importance of brand-congruent acoustic elements.10 Through acoustic elements that “fit” the brand have significantly better values ​​in terms of brand perception, advertising recall and willingness to buy than with music that is not “fit” to the brand. Inappropriate music can even have a negative impact. “In connection with the words and other stimuli in commercials, music can acquire a conceptual sharpness that is even superior to that of the word.” 11 But music can also surpass the impact of images in strength and expressiveness, as is clear from the example of film music becomes. In England, the film “Da Vinci Code” for Dan Brown's novel “Da Vinci Code” had to be defused in order to be approved for ages 12 and over. The reason wasn't the violent images, but the film score. After revising the audio track - the footage remained unchanged - the film was finally approved. The fact that effects can be achieved through music and sound that cannot be achieved with images alone can be seen in the film adaptation of Patrick Süskind's novel “Perfume”. The effect and power of the smells and fragrances are primarily conveyed through the music in the film. The connection between the sense of smell and hearing is obvious: Both are fleeting, have an extremely emotional effect, awaken memories and have a strong associative character. This is also expressed in the language in the film: There is talk of “composing” a fragrance; The base, heart and top notes of a perfume have to be coordinated like “chords”. _____________ 9 Cf. Simpkins / Smith 1974 10 Cf. North et al. 2004 and Zander 2006 11 Cf. Zander 2006, p. 478 and Rösing 2005, p. 95 More beautiful the brands never sound ... Jingle all the way? 95 5. Conclusion While reading the title of this article, did you have one or even two melodies in mind? Audio branding follows this basic principle of linking acoustic stimuli with associations and meanings as well as stimuli from other sensory modalities (e.g. visual or olfactory). When listening to music or a sequence of sounds, one can think of a brand, just as with a brand one can have a melody, an advertising slogan or a melody with an advertising slogan (jingle) in mind. But do the songs (“Jingle Bells”, “Sweeter the bells never sound”), the melodies of which you may have had in mind when reading the title, actually thematically fit the content of this text? The aim of branding is not only to publicize, identify and differentiate a brand, but also to link positioning content and support image effects: The brand fit of music and sound therefore plays a central role in audio branding. The many possible uses of music and sound in brand communication, the effects that can be achieved with them and the advantages of acoustic sense, which were described as examples in this article, make one thing clear: the use and selection of music and sound for advertising and communication cannot be accidental or left to the personal preferences of a marketing manager. The motto "let's take some beautiful music to make people buy our stuff" falls short of the mark.12 In the visual field, one has been listening to experts for a long time. It is high time that the ears of customers and stakeholders were valued as much as their eyes. The often demonized advertising can then, at least in its field, counteract the generally rampant acoustic pollution. And then one can hope for more euphoria and an aesthetically appealing design of the communication measures as well as the products and services themselves for the future. Sound samples for this article on _____________ 12 Cf. Zander 2006, p. 478 96 Kai Bronner Literature Bronner K .: Audio-Branding. Acoustic brand communication as a brand management strategy? Diploma thesis, University of Applied Sciences Stuttgart: 2004 Esch F.-R .: Strategy and technology of brand management. Munich: Vahlen 2005 Fichter J .: Actuopalaeontological studies on the locomotion of recent Urodeles and Lacertilians as well as palaeontological investigations on tetrapod tracks of the Rotliegend (Lower Permian) SW Germany, dissertation (unpublished). Mainz: 1979 Helms S .: Music in advertising.Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Härtel 1981 Kilian K .: Multi-sensual brand design as the basis for holistic brand communication, pp. 307-340. In: Florack A., Scarabis M., Primosch E. (Ed.): Psychology of Brand Management. Munich: Vahlen 2007 Luckner P. (Hg): Multisensual design. An anthology. Halle: University of Art and Design Halle 2002 North A. C., Hargreaves D. J., MacKenzie L. C., Law R .: The effects of musical and voice 'fit' on responses to advertisements. In: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34 (8), p. 1675-1708: 2004 Rings C .: Audio Branding. Music as a trademark of companies. Berlin: Verlag Dr. Müller 2005 Rösing H .: Music in Advertising. In: That sounds so nice and ugly - thoughts on the reference system music. Bielefeld: transcript 2005 Simpkins J. D., Smith J. A .: Effects of music on source evaluation. In: Journal of Broadcasting 18, p. 361-367: 1974 Zander M. F .: Musical influences in advertising: how music modifies first impressions of product endorsers and brands. In: Psychology of Music, 34 (4), p. 465-480: 2006