Contains hydrocodone codeine

Ibuprofen as an alternative to opioids?


Acute musculoskeletal pain of the extremities (including shoulder, knee, and hip joints)

Study objective

Comparison of the effectiveness of four oral analgesics, including three opioids, one non-opioid

Study type

Clinical study

Study design

Randomized, double-blind

Included patients

416 patients randomized, of which 411 analyzed

Inclusion criteria

Acute pain of the extremities, presentation to the emergency room, mandatory X-ray

Exclusion criteria (selection)

Chronic pain, intolerance to pain medication, taking pain medication in the past 24 hours (opioids) or 8 hours (ibuprofen, paracetamol), organ insufficiency (kidney, liver), pregnancy


Oral single dose of pain reliever, assessment of pain intensity two hours after ingestion

Primary endpoint

Pain reduction within 2 hours of ingestion, rated on a scale from 0 to 10 (0 = no pain, 10 = greatest possible pain)

Secondary endpoints (selection)

Pain intensity after 1 hour

Duration of study

July 2015 to August 2016

Study register number

NCT02455518 (