Contains hydrocodone codeine
Ibuprofen as an alternative to opioids?
Acute musculoskeletal pain of the extremities (including shoulder, knee, and hip joints)
Comparison of the effectiveness of four oral analgesics, including three opioids, one non-opioid
416 patients randomized, of which 411 analyzed
Acute pain of the extremities, presentation to the emergency room, mandatory X-ray
Exclusion criteria (selection)
Chronic pain, intolerance to pain medication, taking pain medication in the past 24 hours (opioids) or 8 hours (ibuprofen, paracetamol), organ insufficiency (kidney, liver), pregnancy
Oral single dose of pain reliever, assessment of pain intensity two hours after ingestion
Pain reduction within 2 hours of ingestion, rated on a scale from 0 to 10 (0 = no pain, 10 = greatest possible pain)
Secondary endpoints (selection)
Pain intensity after 1 hour
Duration of study
July 2015 to August 2016
Study register number
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