What do hobbits do for a living?

Summary of The Hobbit

Britain between the world wars

The First World War marked a turning point in the history of wars: a modern, previously never used weapon technology caused a high degree of destruction in a very short time: artillery fire, poison gas, machine guns, fighter planes and submarines revolutionized the craft of war. One of the most violent battles was the attrition between the war opponents on the Somme in France in 1916. A million people lost their lives there, including 400,000 Germans, 400,000 British and 200,000 French. With the help of remotely controlled weapons, every form of romantic, heroic transfiguration of the war melted away, it only appeared as a cruel battle of materials.

Great Britain emerged from the war stronger in foreign policy: The German navy was defeated, German colonies and parts of the Ottoman Empire expanded the British colonial empire, and Russia was embroiled in internal conflicts due to the revolution. Domestically, the Labor Party strengthened. The Great Depression of 1929 was attempted with the participation of liberal and conservative ministers and the ideas of the economist John Maynard Keynes to solve. The peace movement in the country was the core of the later anti-war sentiment and the appeasement policy towards Nazi Germany. In 1935 there was even a German-British naval agreement, and the German invasion of the demilitarized Rhineland, the annexation of Austria to the German Empire and the cession of the Sudetenland were accepted by the British. Only as under the leadership of AdolfHitler In 1939 Poland was invaded, Great Britain declared war on Germany. The Second World War began.

Emergence

It was probably on a summer day in the late 1920s that Tolkien came up with the idea for the Hobbit would have. At this point he was already working on his great Middle-earth mythology and trying other fantasy stories. That afternoon, however, he also had to go through his students' exams, which he did not enjoy. When he found two blank pages in a notebook, he thoughtfully scribbled down the first sentence of his new work: "In a hole in the ground, there lived a hobbit."

Actual work on the novel probably began in 1930. However, Tolkien's sons later recalled that their father had told them about hobbits before. Because originally the story was conceived as a fairy tale for Tolkien's children and accordingly contained many elements of a typical children's story. Tolkien passed the unfinished story to his friend and fellow writer C. S. Lewis further, who was immediately on fire. Still, the unfinished work lay in a drawer in Tolkien's desk for a long time, until one day an editor from the publisher George Allen & Unwin knocked on Tolkien's door. A former student to whom he had loaned the manuscript had drawn the publisher's attention to the text. The editor asked the author to end the story because that was the only way she could offer it to her publisher. Tolkien used the summer vacation of 1936 to finally finish writing the book. publisher Stanley Unwin finally liked the book as much as its editor.

Impact history

The Hobbit appeared in the late autumn of 1937, and the first edition was out of print by Christmas. A German edition did not go on sale until 1957. Tolkien feared the scorn of his colleagues at the university, but when the first reviews appeared, they only responded with more or less hidden envy, not with scorn. C. S. Lewis reviewed the Hobbit For The Times Literary Supplement and praised the book profusely: “Predictions are risky, but The Hobbit could well prove to be a classic. ”Lewis continued to publish reviews, which Tolkien was almost embarrassed, especially because he feared that his friendship with Lewis might come to light. Because of the good sales figures, Unwin soon asked for a sequel. Tolkien liked the idea of ​​being a celebrated writer. He took his time, wanting his little story to expand into something truly epic. The result was Lord of the Rings. Bilbo's ring find in Hobbit became the hook of the novel trilogy. While composing the Ring Trilogy, Tolkien noted that he had read the relevant chapter in the Hobbit had to add and modify in order to emphasize its great importance and to preserve the continuity between the works. So he revised the fifth chapter more than ten years after it was first published, and in 1951 brought a new one Hobbit out.

The novel was also published in audio and radio play form. In 1977 a cartoon adaptation was broadcast on Canadian television. For 2011 is a two-part film adaptation with the Lord of the rings-Director Peter Jackson planned as a producer.