What is New Zealands Tourism Strategy
Ecotourism in New Zealand An overview
1 University of Applied Sciences Eberswalde WS 2002/2003 Department of Landscape Use / Nature Conservation Department of Economics Master's degree: Sustainable Tourism Module 4: Ecotourism Lecturer: Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas Ecotourism in New Zealand An overview Runa Zeppenfeld Grolmanstr Berlin matriculation number
2 Contents 1. Introduction 2. New Zealand at a Glance 3. Tourism in New Zealand 4. The Ecotourism Market Segment in New Zealand 4.1. The definition of ecotourism 4.2. Overview of the offer 4.3. Main potential of the offer: the large protected areas 4.4. The Department of Conservation (DOC) 4.5. Tourist tasks of the DOC 5. Practical examples 5.1. The management of the Milford Track in Fiordland National Park 5.2. Analysis of an eco-tour operator from New Zealand 6. The customers of eco-tourism offers 7. Summary 8. Appendix 2
3 1. Introduction The present work gives an overview of the market segment of ecotourism in New Zealand. Both the supply and the demand side are considered. In New Zealand, nature and tourism development have always gone hand in hand. Just like sustainable tourism, the term ecotourism only found its way into New Zealand tourism research a few years ago. The following geographical overview shows why the country offers excellent conditions for nature and ecotourism. 2. New Zealand at a glance a) Geomorphology, flora and fauna On an area not much larger than the old Federal Republic of Germany, there is an abundance of surface shapes on the three main islands of New Zealand (North Island, South Island and Stewart Island). Fold mountains, caves, fjords, mangrove coasts, glacial forms and tectonic faults are only mentioned here as examples. Due to its location on a fault zone in the earth's crust, there are also some active volcanoes, thermal springs and geysers on the North Island, combined with a large number of mostly lighter earthquakes (HÜTTERMANN 1991, p. 9). Geographically, New Zealand belongs to the former southern continent of Gondwana, which broke into several parts around a million years ago at the end of the Mesozoic Era. Since then, the islands' flora and fauna have developed in complete isolation. Today almost 80% of the flora is still designated as endemic (HÜTTERMANN 1991, p. 23). The islands are known for their subtropical to boreal rainforests and for their unusually rich bird life, which in the absence of any mammals 1 gave birth to a number of flightless species. A rich fauna lives on the coasts of the islands - from sea lions and seals to penguins and albatrosses. Dolphins and whales live in the sea near the coasts. With the beginning of human settlement about years ago, animals 2 and plants 3 came to the islands from almost every continent in the world. Many endemic species were unable to cope with this new competition and died out in a short time. The ecosystem, which had been isolated for millions of years, got completely mixed up from then on. 3
4 b) Climate New Zealand has a maritime climate with precipitation spread over the year. The overall weather situation is determined by the subtropical-marginal tropical high pressure channel in the north (tropical cyclones in late summer / early autumn) and a violent westerly wind zone (roaring forties) on the rest of the islands. This leads to frequent weather changes (HÜTTERMANN 1991, p. 14). The warmest months are January and February (approx. 18 degrees on the North Island and 15.5 degrees on the South Island), the coldest is July (9.5 degrees North Island, 6 degrees South Island) (HARPER et. Al. 1998, p. XV). Snowfalls are mostly limited to the mountains. Frost is rare. On average, between 600 mm and 1500 mm of precipitation fall in New Zealand, although on the western side of the Southern Alps it can be over 8000 mm NS / year locally (HÜTTERMANN 1991, p. 13). c) Environmental problems The fact that New Zealand appears so natural to the visitor is more a coincidence than the result of a sophisticated environmental management system. It is mainly due to the fact that the islands are so isolated, their human settlement history is relatively short and the population has remained low. Many landscapes today are nevertheless a jumble of endemic and introduced plants and animals (HARPER et. Al. 1998, p. 787). Over the past 200 years, European settlers have systematically cleared the natural vegetation. From the original forest cover (approx. 80%) only approx. 20% is left today. The fast-growing California spruce is often used for reforestation instead of native varieties. Whole regions are dominated by it today. A wide variety of pesticides and herbicides were used to make the land usable for agriculture in the western style. The connection between Western lifestyle and environmental degradation has not yet established itself in large parts of the population. Too many cars with poorly developed public transport, increasing energy consumption and unchecked urban sprawl in cities as well as inadequate packaging and waste management are just a few of the consequences. The dangers of importing or planting genetically modified plants, seeds or food have attracted a great deal of public attention in recent years. 4th
5 d) State and society From approx. 800 n.c. the first Maori from Polynesia came to the islands. Almost 1000 years later (end of the 18th century / beginning of the 19th century) a systematic British settlement followed and the islands became a crown colony. New Zealand has been a parliamentary monarchy within the Commonwealth since 1907. Today about 3.7 million people live on the islands, of which 74% are of European (predominantly British) descent. In addition to the second largest population group, the (partial) Maori (approx. 10%), there are a large number of migrants from Polynesia and Asia. In addition to English, the official language is also Maori. 75% of the population live on the North Island. The largest city in the country with almost 1 million inhabitants is Auckland, Wellington the capital, also located on the North Island - is the second largest city in the country with approx. The degree of urbanization is 87% (all figures: FISCHER WELTALMANACH 2000, p. 567). 3. Tourism in New Zealand The development of tourism began in the middle of the 19th century with the emergence of spa and medicinal baths at the hot springs in and around Rotorua on the middle of the North Island. European settlers recognized early on what tourist potential could be found in the natural areas that could not be used for agriculture, forestry or settlement construction. This fact alone saved them from destruction. The areas were not protected for their own sake (cf. BOOTH et. Al. 2000, p. 39), a Tourist and Publicity Department was set up as part of the Ministry of Health, the first in the world (cf. GEBAUER et. Al. 1995, P. 22). In order to increase the attractiveness of the forests for hunting tourism for wealthy Englishmen, deer, wild boars and goats were released, one of the causes for the degradation and extermination of the native flora and fauna 4. A possible intrinsic value of the original nature has not yet been recognized (HIGHAM 1998 , P. 2). For a long time New Zealand was mainly visited by Australians. Europeans and Americans usually only came to the islands as part of a trip to Australia. When Great Britain joined the European Community in 1973, New Zealand's most important sales market for its mainly agricultural products suddenly collapsed. (GEBAUER et. Al. 1995, p. 25). The country got into an economic crisis. At the same time, tourism with international visitors became increasingly important. Between 1974 and 1998 the number of tourists rose from 2.5 million foreign visitors per year, with annual growth rates of up to 14% 5 (cf. KEARSLEY et. Al. 1998, p. 2). Today it is the most important 5
6 best foreign exchange earners in the country. Their share of GDP is estimated at 9.7%, worked out by 10.5% of all New Zealand workers (cf. MOT 2003). Since the beginning of the 90s, the New Zealand tourist office has been pursuing a marketing strategy that clearly focuses on natural potential as a unique selling proposition with the attributes clean, green, 100% pure. The evoked association of a pure, untouched green landscape, which the holidaymaker can expect in New Zealand, stands in an interesting contrast to the fact that many regions of the country are strongly influenced by anthropogenic influences and are damaged (cf.HIGHAM et. Al. 2001, p . 27). In 2001, the New Zealand Ministry of Tourism published a national tourism strategy for the next decade (National Tourism Strategy 2010), in which it asserts that it recognizes the value of the natural environment for tourism and therefore wants to actively protect it (cf. MOT 2001) . The government also supports the global certification program for sustainable tourism products Green Globe 21 (GG21), an environmental award launched in 1994 to which more than 1000 companies in more than 100 countries belong today (cf. the work of GG21 is carried out in association with the World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC), the forum of the world's leading companies in the tourism industry, 209 tour operators, hotels, winegrowers, campsites, etc. in New Zealand already had GG21 accreditation (cf. MOT 2002). New Zealand became the umbrella tourist brand as early as 1993 Way, whose seal distinguishes high-quality and environmentally friendly New Zealand products (PAWSON 1997, p. 17). In addition, the New Zealand motorists' club supports the quality seal for tourist services Qualmark. GG21, New Zealand Way and Qualmark show that there is now a certain in New Zealand too There is a confusion of seals in which the goodness of the various awards is not immediately accessible to foreign visitors. Although the Maori are used by the New Zealand Tourist Board for their overseas marketing, there are few Maori entrepreneurs in the tourism industry. Their increasing political weight in recent years, combined with a series of land restitutions to Maori tribes, including in state protected areas, will present tourism management with new tasks in the years to come. Cooperative ways of working will be inevitable. An honestly meant promotion of sustainable tourism by the state will not be able to evade before tackling this problem. 6th
7 4. The ecotourism market segment in New Zealand 4.1 To define ecotourism HIGHAM used two definitions as the basis for its study on ecotourism in New Zealand published in 2001: Ecotourism Association of Australia 1996: Ecotourism is ecologically sustainable tourism with a primary focus on experiencing natural areas that fosters environmental and cultural understanding, appreciation and conservation. WEAVER 2001: Ecotourism is a forma of tourism that is increasingly understood to be (1) based primarily on nature-based attractions, (2) learning-centered and (3) conducted in a way that makes every reasonable attempt to be environmentally, socio -culturally and economically sustainable. (HIGHAM et. Al. 2001, p. 9) For the present work, the definition of STRASDAS was also taken into account, as it includes further aspects: Ecotourism is a form of responsible travel in near-natural areas, in which the experience of nature in The focus is on. Ecotourism minimizes negative ecological and socio-cultural effects, helps finance protected areas or nature conservation measures, and creates income opportunities for the local population. Indirectly, ecotourism is intended to increase the acceptance of nature conservation by relevant social actors (STRASDAS 2002). 4.2 Overview of what is on offer Although nature has played a central role in New Zealand's tourism product for over 100 years, the real ecotourism sector is still in its infancy. Most companies were only founded in the 90s of the last century. Older providers are mostly in the hands of the New Zealand state conservation authority. The sector is growing very quickly, although the boundaries between nature and outdoor adventure tourism are blurred for some organizers. There are around 250 suppliers of ecotourism products whose main offering consists of experiencing nature and observing and learning about New Zealand's flora and fauna. The size of the company varies between 2-4 visitors per week and visitors per year (cf. HIGHAM 2001, p. 10). The offers range from visitor centers in wildlife reserves or national parks to boat trips to whale and dolphin 7
8 starting areas to guided hiking tours in protected areas including all transport and accommodation services. However, all providers that HIGHAM included in its study on the ecotourism market fulfilled the following criteria: environmental education and information; Visitor exhibitions, donations / donations to nature conservation and / or research, small guest groups, limited number of participants, the company has an environmental care code based on that of the nature conservation authority (DOC) (see Appendix, overview 3), with the help of which it tries to intervene i Reduce nature to a minimum, the provider manages a protected area or has a DOC concession that allows travel groups to access parks. So far, no national seal of approval has been established for organic organizers. A separate interest group for entrepreneurs has not yet been founded either (HIGHAM et. Al. 2001, p. 10). 4.3 Main potential of the offer: the large protected areas With the designation of the Tongariro National Park in 1894, New Zealand was one of the first countries to designate protected areas for the preservation of nature (BOOTH et. Al. 2000, p. 39). Today the country has thirteen national parks and three marine protected areas. While the majority of the national parks are to be found in the mountain regions of the sparsely populated South Island, most of the forest parks, a weaker form of protected area, are located on the North Island (see Appendix, Map 1 and Overview 1 + 2). Two national park areas are listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites (Tongariro National Park on the North Island and the Te Wahipounamu area, with the Fiordland, Mt. Aspiring, Mt. Cook and Westland National Parks in the southwest of the South Island). In addition, there are a number of other forms of protected area (historical site, nature reserve, wild animal reserve or wildlife sanctuary, etc.), so that a total of almost 30% of the two main islands have some form of protection status (HIGHAM 1998, p. 2). A protection category for cultivated landscapes worth preserving, as is widespread in Europe (e.g. biosphere reserve), does not yet exist in New Zealand (BOOTH et al. 2000, p. 47). 8th
9 4.4 The Department of Conservation (DOC) 1 Large protected areas are administered by the New Zealand Department of Conservation (DOC), which was established by the Conservation Act in 1987, which essentially outlines the role and main tasks of the agency. On behalf of and for the benefit of present and future New Zealanders, the DOC aims to protect and preserve New Zealand's natural and historical heritage. Large protected areas are understood as a common heritage of all New Zealanders. They are therefore state-owned land and in principle freely accessible to every citizen. 7. The DOC advises the ministers and the government on questions relating to its area of responsibility and is at the same time the executive body of government policy. Its status is therefore (even if the areas of responsibility are defined differently) similar to that of the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN) in Germany. Some essential tasks are: to make the protected areas accessible to the public for nature-friendly recreation and tourism, while ensuring the protection of natural and historical resources, preserving endangered species from extinction, minimizing ecological risks (opossum, fire, oil spill, weeds), protection of marine animals and coastal areas through the establishment and management of marine protected areas, renaturation measures, management and maintenance of the historical buildings, places and Maori settlements in protected areas. 4.5 Tourist tasks of the DOC The DOC is responsible for a whole network of hiking trails in the protected areas, which it maintains, signs and expands. It controls the flow of visitors in the areas and maintains over 900 hikers' huts, information centers and other visitor facilities. Furthermore, it publishes a large number of information materials about the individual protected areas as part of its mission of public education and environmental education. The DOC representative is the first point of contact for visitors to large protected areas for information about nature and opportunities to explore. The work of the DOC is a constant balancing act between nature conservation on the one hand and tourism management on the other. Based on the principle of free access for visitors to a protected area, the DOC has taken the following control measures: 1 Unless otherwise stated, all information in this chapter is based on information on the website 9
10 Gentle measures 1. Path categorization A first step in visitor management in a large conservation area is the various ways in which the paths are expanded. From the park entrance onwards, streams of visitors can be directed. The DOC works with the following route classification: Path: easy to walk on, mostly flat, very well developed, often also suitable for wheelchair users Hiking trail (walking tracks / tramping tracks): walking on it requires a certain level of fitness and suitable equipment for the visitor route in advance: only suitable for sure-footed and vertigo-free visitors with hiking experience in the hinterland, large differences in altitude, easily developed paths (HARPER et. al. 1998, p. 10).The eight most popular hiking routes in New Zealand have been recognized as Great Walks (see Appendix, Overview 3). As DOC business cards, they receive the largest share of public money and are therefore mostly in excellent condition. The paths are so well developed that some hikers mockingly refer to them as hikers' highways (cf. HARPER et al. 1998, p. 50). Five of the eight hiking trails are on the South Island, only two on the North Island and one on Stewart Island, outside a national park. There are three hiking trails in the Fiordland National Park alone. The pressure of tourism on these areas is therefore particularly high and requires special attention from the authority. Environmental information and education in the visitor centers The visitor centers operated by the DOC have an exhibition about the development history of the area and the flora and fauna that are present today. In addition, various films about the park are shown in audio visuals. In addition, the visitor is offered the usual DOC services (overnight coupons for the hiking huts or campsites, maps and information material for the various hiking trails in the park, booking tours, etc.). Finally, there are also park-independent service facilities such as Souvenir shop, cafeteria, toilets and parking spaces. The visitor centers can usually be reached via well-developed roads. There is seldom a public transport connection in the European sense. However, some are approached by private bus companies. 10
11 3. Instructions The DOC has developed an environmental care code, which is intended to make it easier for visitors to behave correctly when they are in the park (see Appendix, Overview 3). Whether misconduct is sanctioned with fines could not be inferred from the available literature. 4. Subdivision of tourists into types of visitors In the meantime, the DOC has developed a visitor strategy concept. Since then, visitors have been divided into seven groups according to their behavior and needs during a stay in the park (see Appendix, Overview 5). An important finding is the spatial behavior of the different types of visitors. While the visitor groups short stop traveler, day visitor and overnighter only stay in the outskirts (frontcountry) of the park, the different types of hikers (backcountry comfort seekers, backcountry adventurers, remote seekers and thrill seekers) present the park administration with much greater challenges because they penetrate deeper into the sensitive nature areas (backcountry). These visitor groups are also the most sensitive to typical tourism problems such as noise and crowding. Sophisticated route, hut and sleeping area management is very important for them. 9. Hard measures 1. Limitation of park access for visitors (see Chapter 5.1) 2. Usage fees (see Chapter 5.1) Other landscape planning measures Zoning A typical landscape planning measure for the Visitor management would be zoning. However, no information on this could be found in the sources analyzed. However, the distribution of the offerings in the park area suggests zoning. The increasing number of visitors to the large protected areas are the cause of increasing pressure on the hinterland of the parks. Ever larger parts of a park are being developed and used, and more and more visitors want to visit remote park areas because the peripheral zones are already showing signs of overflow. As early as the mid-1990s, a study by the New Zealand Tourist Office found that the most popular routes did not allow any further increase in the number of tourists
12 sen. In order to be able to pursue its growth goals nonetheless, it therefore proposed the promotion of previously less popular routes (HIGHAM p. 2). If this concept is pursued for decades, there is a risk that the nature reserves will degenerate into commodities of tourism, their protective value as such would be called into question 10. The basis of the ecotourism market segment would then also be jeopardized. New Zealand's major protected areas are at a crossroads. Ideas on how to proceed further are guided by two contradicting world views within society: the anthropocentric worldview (man is the ruler of nature and can make use of it) the ecological worldview (man is part of nature, he does not stand above it you, nature has an intrinsic value) (cf. HIGHAM et. al. 2001, p. 30). Even if the increasing flow of tourists from overseas is very much desired by the New Zealand government for economic reasons, a destination that relies on nature will sooner rather than later reach its capacity limits. If you steadfastly increase the number of tourists, you slowly destroy your natural capital and the path to mere mass tourism would be paved. But will there still be enough tourists on such a long journey? If you want to stop the development early enough, you will have to define new economic development goals. 5. Practical examples 5.1 The management of the Milford Track in Fiordland National Park For the use of the Great Walks, the DOC developed a booking system in the 90s, which limits the number of visitors on a walk. In addition, a usage fee was introduced, which is not only intended to guide the increasing number of visitors, but also helps to cover the increasing maintenance costs. The 53.5 km long route of the Milford Track, which is completed by visitors in a four-day hike with three overnight stays, has to be conquered by visitors every year. Since most of the visitors come during the season, this corresponds to around 70 visitors in 183 days that are left on the track every day. A contingent of 40 places is reserved for individual travelers, the rest is given to travel groups. In the 2002/2003 season (October to April) the fee for the Milford Track for an adult was NZ $ 105 (approx. 50). In addition, there are overnight prices for hikers in the hikers 'huts, which vary depending on the standard of the hut (an overnight stay in the DOC standard hikers' huts costs, for example, 10 NZ dollars (approx. 5) per night). 12th
13 The route can only be hiked in one direction in order to minimize the crowding feeling. Outside the season, use is free and the route is accessible from both sides, but the huts are then not looked after by a DOC employee and the hiking opportunities are very limited in view of the extreme weather conditions (DOC 2003). 5.2 Analysis of a New Zealand eco-tour operator 2 The company Hiking New Zealand was founded in 1993 as New Zealand Nature Safaris by a New Zealand zoologist with the following corporate objectives: To benefit from tourism profits for nature conservation and research, to show guests the beauty of New Zealand's natural areas teaching the guest in outdoor skills (lighting a fire, crossing rivers, etc.), helping the guest to exceed personal boundaries, strengthening team spirit, sharpening awareness of the problems of nature. The multi-day trips lead to less visited protected areas. The company has a DOC license for this. The DOC's environmental care code became part of the company's philosophy. The five tours offered are carried out with a maximum of 12 participants by one of the ten permanent tour guides. The most popular trips have weekly departure dates in the high season, with currently ninety tour groups a year. Despite different degrees of difficulty, basic fitness and surefootedness are also basic requirements for participation on uneven terrain - in addition to flexibility and openness. Furthermore, the willingness to actively participate in the travel organization (cooking, making a fire, etc.) must be present. Participation is not restricted to any age group, but mostly fluctuates between years. The group language is without exception English, even if the groups are made up of a very international group. All tour guides are academics with environmental or natural science degrees. Since the tours are usually led alone, all-round talent is required (nature guides, first-aiders, teachers, bus drivers, organizers, cooks, car mechanics, etc.). You will spend the night on the DOC campsites, in DOC hikers' cabins or in open sleeping areas and fireplaces designated in the parks. In 1998 the company established the NZ Wildlife Research Fund, which is dedicated to protecting the Hector Dolphins off New Zealand's coasts. From each trip, 10 dol- 2 all information: as well as travel brochures and newsletters are made out
14 lar paid to this find. In the future, the money will also be used to finance research grants. The distribution takes place in New Zealand through travel agencies or backpackers and youth hostels with a booking license. Overseas, they work with a large number of tour operators. The focus is on the outdoor market. With the help of the Internet and a customer hotline, the customer can also book directly with the company. The word ecotourism does not play a role in the marketing. Five tours are planned, organized and carried out by the company itself. On the other six trips in the program, you cooperate with other New Zealand providers (add-ons). For some years now, mountain bike tours have also been offered this way. On the one hand, new target groups can certainly be opened up in this way and the customer base increased. On the other hand, the expansion of the offer dilutes the company's image. It can therefore possibly lose its attractiveness for the original target group. With the help of a customer newspaper (newsletter) one tries to keep a customer base. The main hope is that the company will be recommended through word of mouth. The organizer lives mainly from international tourists. Since they don't come back every few years given the distance of New Zealand, attracting new customers in this informal way is very important. The company's external image has also changed since the range was expanded. In 1999 it still represented an open eco-image in which all information materials, envelopes etc. were printed and sent on dark recycled paper, since 2000 they have been in line with the mainstream of the travel industry with a colorful, glossy brochure. 6. Ecotourism consumers The main objective of the study on ecotourism in New Zealand published by HIGHAM in 2001 was to research the profile of ecotourists in the country. What are their characteristics? To this end, 967 guests were asked about ecotourism offers. It turned out that 55.6% of all guests surveyed were female. 28.3% of the holidaymakers came from New Zealand (mainly from the large city regions of Auckland and Wellington), 26.1% were from Great Britain and 15.1% came from the USA. German vacationers took fourth place with 5%. All in all, most of the ecotourists came from Europe. 67.5% of those examined had a high school diploma, 23.4% were academics. At the time of the survey, almost a third were members of at least one environmental protection organization. More than 14
15 50% of those questioned stated that the researchers had an ecological view of the world based on their response patterns. 20.5% became aware of the offer through friends, 18.3% through a travel guide, whereby the Lonely Planet was the absolute leader among ecotourists with 55.7%. 80.5% visited more than one ecotourism site during their vacation in New Zealand. The activities of the visitors were widely spread and ranged from animal observation to hiking to environmental information including visiting an exhibition or taking part in a guided tour. Animal observations were the most popular offer with 37.5%. But explanations by the guides or staff were also very much appreciated by the visitors. The general satisfaction with the offer was unusually high. Almost 90% of all respondents gave a rating between 1 (= completely unsatisfied) to 9 (= very satisfied) between 7 and% indicated that they would recommend the offer to others. 87% of those questioned were of the opinion that their environmental awareness had been increased through the experience and information of the offer. The most important points of criticism of the vacationers were: group size, the lack of environmentally friendly means of transport and too few rules of conduct. Most of them had a negative attitude towards further growth of the company (all figures: HIGHAM 2001, p. 19ff.). 7. Summary In New Zealand the development of tourism is based on the unique natural conditions of the country. Since the mid-1970s, international tourism has been systematically expanded with state support, so that it is now the country's most important source of foreign currency. In the 1990s, the first signs of overexploitation of the natural areas by tourists (noise, crowding) became clear. At the same time, the idea of sustainable tourism spread. Ecotourism as part of this found particularly good prerequisites for this in the country's protected areas. Ecotourism in New Zealand is a growing market segment with very satisfied customers. The inquirers confirm that it has an educational effect in matters of environmental and nature conservation. Most providers make an active financial contribution to environmental protection. But tour operators and DOC are opening up ever more remote natural areas with their offers. This increases the pressure on nature in the affected areas. The state does indeed have active visitor management with soft and hard measures
16, but there is a risk of state-sponsored commercialization of the large protected areas. If growth continues unchecked, New Zealand tourism will eventually jeopardize its very foundation. This will be the first to hit the ecotourism market segment. In the new tourism concept 2010, sustainable tourism development is aimed for in the next decade. It remains to be seen whether sustainable development can help overcome the inextricable contradiction between the economy and the environment. The New Zealand government has a special responsibility for a natural heritage that is unique on earth. If the tourism development promoted by the state in the last three decades continues, this will not be sustained in the long term. 16
17 8. Appendix Map 1: Protected Areas in New Zealand (Source: TURNER et.al. 1998, p. 96) 17
18 Overview 1: Distribution of national parks National parks North Island Whanganui NP Te Urewera NP Tongariro NP Egmont NP National parks South Island Abel Tasman NP Nelson Lakes NP Lewis Pass NP Kahurangi NP Paparoa NP Arthur`s Pass NP Westland NP Mt Cook NP Mt Aspiring NP Fiordland NP Maritime protected areas North Island Bay of Islands Maritime & Historic Park Hauraki Golf Maritime Park (Source: TURNER et. Al. 1998, p. 96; own illustration) Maritime Protected Areas South Island Marlborough Sounds Maritime Park Overview 2: Distribution of Forest Parks Forest Parks North Island Forest Parks South Island Northland Mt Richmond Coromandel Victoria Kaimai Mamaku Lake Sumner Whakarewarewa Craigeburn Pirongia Catlins State Pureora Whirinaki Kaimanawa Ruahine Taraua Rimutaka Haurangi Kaweka Raukumara State Forest (source: TURNER et. Al. 1998, p. 96; own illustration) 18
19 Overview 3: New Zealand`s Environmental Care Code Protect plants and animals. Treat New Zealand`s forests and birds with care and respect. They are often unique and rare. Remove rubbish. Litter is unattractive, harmful to wildlife and increase vermin and disease. Plan your visits so as to reduce rubbish, and carry out what you carry in. Bury toilet waste. In areas without toilet facilities, bury your toilet waste in a shallow hole well away from waterways, tracks, camp sites and huts Keep streams and lakes clean. When cleaning and washing, wash well away from the water source. Because soaps and detergents are harmful to water life, drain used water into the soil to allow it to be filtered. If you suspect the water may be contaminated, either boil it for at least three minutes, filter it, or chemically treat it. Take care with fires. Portable fuel stoves are less harmful to the environment and are more efficient that fires. If you do use a fire, keep it small, use only dead wood and make sure it is out by dousing it with water and checking the ashes before leaving. Camp carefully. When camping, leave no trace of your visit. Keep to the track. By keeping to the track, you lessen the chance of damaging fragile plants. Consider others. People visit the back country and rural areas for many reasons. Be considerate of other visitors who also have a right to enjoy the natural environment. Respect cultural heritage. Many places in New Zealand have a spiritual and historic significance. Treat these places with consideration and respect. Enjoy your visit. Enjoy your outdoor experience. Take a last look before leaving an area: will the next visitor know that you have been there? Protect the environment for your own sake, for the sake of those who come after you, and for the environment itself. (Source: TURNER et. Al. 1998, p. 99; own illustration) Overview 4: The Great walks Abel Tasman Coastal Track National Park Abel Tasman NP Heaphy Track Kahurangi NP Kepler Track Fiordland NP Lake Waikaremoana Track Te Urewera NP Milford Track Fiordland NP Rakiura Track Stewart Island Routeburn Track Mt Aspiring + Fiordland NP Tongariro Northern Circuit Tongariro NP (Source: TURNER et. Al. 1998, p. 92 f .; own illustration) 19
20 Overview 5: Visitor groups to conservation land What are visitor groups? Different visitors are seeking different experiences while visiting conservation land. Although some visitors will belong to different visitor groups at different times, at any one time they will be in one of the following groups: Short stop travelers, day visitors, overnighters, backcountry comfort seekers, backcountry adventurers, remoteness seekers, thrill seekers.These broad groups come from the Department`s Visitor Strategy, which was developed with public input from 1994 to The strategy identifies visitors` expectations of the level of service they require and is a major driver behind the Department`s management of recreational opportunities on public conservation land. Short stop travelers This group makes short visits to sites along main roads highways to break up a journey; they expect a safe and comfortable experience with a very high standard of facilities and services. Sites visited by short stop travelers receive high use from both domestic and international visitors. Day visitors This group uses a wide range of sites, such as backcountry access points and coastal areas, for visits lasting from one hour up to one day; they expect a safe and comfortable experience with a high standard of facilities and services. Sites visited by day visitors receive medium to high use and tend to be used more by domestic visitors and locals unless they are on the main tourist routes. Overnighters This group often camps undertaking a variety of activities including the traditional New Zealand family summer holiday experience. They expect basic to high standard facilities and services. Sites visited by overnighters are busy over the summer with low use for the rest of the year. They are mainly used by New Zealanders. Backcountry comfort seekers This group mainly tramps on major tracks for two to five days. They expect a safe and comfortable experience with a high standard of facilities and services, including well constructed tracks and comfortable hut. On these tracks there is an equal proportion of New Zealanders to international visitors. Backcountry adventurers This group mainly visits the backcountry for two to seven days, but can include day trips such as mountain biking. They have a good level of outdoor skill and experience and accept some risks. Thy expect only basic facilities and are generally younger New Zealanders. Remoteness seekers This group visits remote and wilderness areas for two to seven days or more. They want very few or no facilities once in remote areas and have a high level of outdoor skill. They seek challenge and freedom. There are only a few people in this group an they are generally male New Zealanders. Thrill seekers This roup wants specialized facilities or services that provide exciting experiences. Their visits usually last one day. There is a high number of visitors in this group, which is largely made up of young international visitors. Concessionaires tend to provide the services for this group. The visitor groups associates with the frontcountry are short stop travelers, day visitors and overnighters, while the visitor groups associated with the backcountry are backcountry comfort seekers, backcountry adventurers and remoteness seekers. Thrill seekers visit the full range of sites and are not restricted to any one group. (Source: own illustration) 20
21 Bibliography and sources BOOTH, K. / SIMMONS, D. (2000): Tourism and the establishment of national parks in New Zealand. In: BUTLER, R. / BOYD, S. (Eds.): Tourism and National Parks Issues and Implications, Chichester, S DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION (DOC) (2003): DOORNE, S. (2000): Caves, Cultures and Crowds : Carrying Capacity Meets Consumer Sovereignty. journal of sustainable tourism, 8 (2), S FISCHER WELTALMANACH (2000): Der Fischer Weltalmanach Frankfurt / Main GEBAUER, B. / HUY, S. (1995): Vista Point New Zealand. 5th, updated edition, Cologne HARPER, L. / MUDD, T. / WHITFIELD, P. (1998): New Zealand The Rough Guide. London HIGHAM, J. (1998): Sustaining Wilderness in New Zealand in the Third Millenium. (= Paper presented at the High Latitudes Symposium, University of Surrey UK, 16 & 17 th June 1998; Center of Tourism, University of Otago), Dunedin (New Zealand) HIGHAM, J. / CARR, A. / GALE, S. (2001) : Ecotourism in New Zealand Profiling Visitors to New Zealand`s Ecotourism Operations. (= Research paper number One. Center of Tourism, University of Otago). Dunedin (New Zealand) HIKING NEW ZEALND (2003): HÜTTERMANN, A. (1991): New Zealand art and travel guide with cultural studies. Stuttgart KEARSLEY, G. / COUGHLAN, D. / HIGHAM, E. / HIGHAM, J. / THYNE, M. (1998): Impacts of Tourism Use on the New Zealand Backcountry. (= Research paper number One. Center of Tourism, University of Otago). Dunedin (New Zealand) MINISTRY OF TOURISM (MOT) (2001): Nuture our Nature The Eco Experience. Press release from MINISTRY OF TOURISM (MOT) (2002): New Zealand First in Globe to be Green Press release from MINISTRY OF TOURISM (MOT) (2003): NEW ZEALAND NATURE SAFARIS (1999): New Zealand Nature Safaris active outdoor adventure 1999/2000 . Stokes Valley (New Zealand) PAWSON, E. (1997): Branding strategies and languages of consumption. New Zealand Geographer, 53 (2), S STRASDAS, W. (2002): Introduction to Ecotourism: Background, Definitions. (= Reader for module 04 Ecotourism in the Master's degree in Sustainable Tourism, Eberswalde University of Applied Sciences), Eberswalde TURNER, P. / WILLIAMS, J. / KELLY, N. / WHEELER, T. (1998): Lonly Planet New Zealand. 9th edition, Hawthorn (Australia) 21
22 Notes 1 With the exception of bats 2 mainly opossum rats, dogs, rabbits, cats, red deer, wild boars and goats 3 in particular the growth of blackberries, thistles, gorse and heather exploded on the soil, which was enriched with a completely different nutrient mixture. Today, they sometimes overgrow entire stretches of land and systematically push back the indigenous plants 4 The role of parks as such, was to protect their asthetic values so as to encourage tourism. The role of parks to provide for the purpose of recreation and tourism was clearly stated in the dominant attitude towards the parks in New Zealand. Indeed the introduction of game as deer, pigs and goats served to add to the attraction of parks by providing for the needs of game hunters from Britain. The introduction of these species as well as later introductions including possums, wasps and mustelids have contributed significantly to the degradation and extinction of flora and fauna throughout New Zealand`s conservation estate (HIGHAM 1998, p. 2). 5 In 1975 New Zealand had some international tourists; they tended to be Australians and to patronize scheduled coach tours and few left the scenic highlights. (...) By 1985 the number of tourists had doubled to half a million. (...) The present total is one and a half million, many of whom use the Conservation Estate, especially the more popular walking tracks and scenic destinations (KEARSLEY et. Al. 1998, p. 2). 6 According to the association, the seal is one of the most popular environmental brands in the world. Why it is not used in Germany remains to be seen. It is a voluntary commitment that is similar to the German VIABONO award. An assessment of the quality must be omitted in this work. This would have required further research, which would have gone beyond the scope of this work. HIGHAM assesses GG21 in its 2001 study on the New Zealand tourism market as a positive development. The seal would contribute to the professionalization and higher quality of the ecotourism offers, and it would also enable international comparisons, an argument that is certainly not unimportant in the globalized world (cf. HIGHAM 2001, p. 35). 7 Virtually all Crown Land is open to unconstrained public access; only some scientific and nature conservation areas are closed and these are only a very small proportion of the total. (...) all New Zealanders regard free and undisturbed access to the natural heritage of the country as an inalienable right and a part of their Kiwi identity (KEARSLEY et. al. 1998, p. 2). 8 By 1991 international visitors represented 65% of all users on New Zealand`s 11 most popular back country tracks; 85% of which was concentrated on only five tracks: the Abel Tasman, Milford, Routeburn, Kepler and Lake Waikaremoana Tracks (HIGHAM 1998, p. 3). 9 The base assumption of research into crowding is that increased visitor numbers may erode the quality of the visitor experience to the point where the viability of the product is threatened over time (DOORNE 2000, p. 119). Also at HIGHAM: Crowding has shown to be causing unfulfilled recreational goals resulting in behavior changes. (...). Both spatial and seasonal forms of displacement hold potentially serious implications for the patterns and impacts of recreational use in wilderness settings. Most obvious is the likelihood that recreationists will be displaced from primary to secondary tracks and therefore into more remote, challenging, fragile and potentially dangerous settings. Social impacts also arise from asymmetric conflict between mechanized and non-mechanized wilderness users. The impacts of jet boats, helicopters and aircraft overflights add further to the degradation of wilderness and the experience that wilderness offers. Helicopter flights to view the Westland Glaciers, aircraft overflights in Mt. Cook and Mt. Aspiring NPs and jet boat access to park margins are cases that illustrate the asymmetric mechanized impacts in settings offering qualities of wilderness experience (HIGHAM 1998, p. 4). 10 The radical change in the country's socio-economic and political regime since the mid-1980s and the restructuring of the state sector during the 1980s saw the emergence of a new institutional configuration of environmental agencies. (...). The business of conservation in this current period is evident through the introduction of more business-like approaches to conservation management, increased competition for limited financial and human resources and increased commercialism. (...). The `market-driven economic policies of both major political parties have seen an increasing focus upon user-pays and revenue generation in parks in New Zealand. The Business round table in the book `Conservation Strategies for New Zealand suggests privatizing parts of the conservation estate. This would inevitably lead to charges for entry to national parks a concept that is contray to the current legislation and is almost sure to be strongly resisted by major recreation user groups. (...). The `clean green image of New Zealand is particularly dependent upon the continued integrity of these parks, an integrity that, some suggest, is being destroyed by the very tourists who flock to visit them (BOOTH et. Al. 2000, p. 39f. ). 22nd
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