Who was the first African American billionaire
African Americans to Know
Crispus Attucks (1723-1770)
The United States of America did not exist in his lifetime. However, in the Boston massacre, an uprising against British troops, the dockworker Crispus Attucks was the first of five civilians to be killed on March 5, 1770. So he became the black martyr of the American Revolution. Attucks was the son of an African and an Indian and an escaped slave.
Benjamin Banneker (1731-1806)
The mathematician and astronomer is considered to be the first African American scientist. But he was also a passionate abolitionist and criticized the later President Thomas Jefferson for his view that blacks are mentally inferior to whites. Banneker compared the situation of blacks with that of the USA under the "tyranny of the British crown" before the War of Independence.
Phillis Wheatley (1753-1784)
She was born on the banks of the Gambia River in Africa before being sold into slavery at the age of seven. Her "owners" taught her to read and write. She published her first poem at the age of 13, and in 1773 she was the first African-American woman to publish an entire volume of poetry. For this she was also praised by George Washington, who invited her to his place.
James Forten (1766-1842)
Born in freedom, James Forten first went to sea and then did an apprenticeship with a sailmaker. He later bequeathed his business to him, and Forten became a wealthy man. He never sold a sail to a slave ship. He used his wealth and prestige to advocate civil rights for blacks. His name is on the list of the 100 greatest African Americans.
Sojourner Truth (1797-1883)
Originally her name was Isabella, surnames were uncommon for slaves. She often felt the whip until a Quaker gave her freedom in 1826. As Sojourner Truth, she fought for women's rights and against slavery. Her speech "Ain't I a Woman?" Is famous. (Am I not a woman?), In which she called on white women to also stand up for the rights of black women.
Maria W. Stewart (1803-1879)
Maria W. Stewart was born free. She was the first African American woman to speak publicly against slavery. "Many think that you belong to an inferior race of living beings because your skin is dark in color ... It is not the color of the skin that defines a person, but the principle that is inherent in his soul."
Harriet Tubman (ca.1820-1913)
Harriet Tubman escaped as a slave in 1849. From then on she fought for the abolition of slavery and became the most famous escape helper of the "Underground Railroad". This organization helped slaves from the US southern states move to the north. During the Civil War she worked as a scout for the northern states. She was also involved in the women's rights movement.
Booker Taliaferro Washington (1856-1915)
Born a slave, the civil war brought him freedom. Booker T. Washington became an influential educator. He advised blacks to improve their status through education. His ideas were seen by the White House as guidelines for the social development of blacks. In 1901 President Roosevelt invited him to dinner - a scandal at the time because of the racial segregation laws.
Daniel H. Williams (1856-1931)
At the end of the 19th century, blacks had limited access to the health system. The surgeon Daniel H. Williams founded the "Provident Hospital" in Chicago in 1891, the first hospital under African American management and the first training school for black nurses in the USA. The technically outstanding Williams succeeded in an open heart operation as early as 1893.
Ida B. Wells-Barnett (1862-1931)
The parents were slaves before the Civil War, the daughter Ida B. Wells-Barnett became known as a women's rights activist and co-founder of several black civil rights organizations. As a journalist, she waged a fierce battle against widespread lynchings because "we are killed in cold blood outside the city when we are accused by whites," she wrote.
George Washington Carver (around 1864-1943)
Initially a slave to a German immigrant, George was adopted by him after the civil war. Even as a boy he studied the local flora; he was called "the plant doctor". He later became a famous botanist and taught former slaves innovative cultivation techniques. The farm he grew up on was declared the first national memorial to an African American in 1943.
James Weldon Johnson (1871-1938)
He was a diplomat in Roosevelt's service. As managing director of the "National Association for the Advancement of Colored People" he was passionately committed to combating racism and lynching of blacks. Johnson also excelled as a writer and poet, including the poem "Lift Every Voice and Sing", which later became the "African American national anthem".
Carter Godwin Woodson (1875-1950)
For a long time the representation of blacks in history books was limited to their low social status. That would change with Carter G. Woodson. The historian established African American history as a discipline at the university. This earned him the nickname "father of black history". Woodson initiated the "Black History Month", which is still celebrated to this day, in 1926.
William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (1868-1963)
The journalist and historian came from the free black bourgeoisie. In 1895 he was the first black man to earn his doctorate in Havard, his subject being the slave trade. Despite top grades, he was denied a career at renowned universities. In 1919 he organized the first Pan-African Congress in Paris. In the civil rights movement, he was a radical advocate of black rights.
Oscar D. Micheaux (1884-1951)
The writer, director and producer made a film in 1919 as the first African American: "The Homesteader". The advertising poster for the performance said: "All black actors" and "Blacks are allowed to sit anywhere in the hall". Oscar D. Micheaux repeatedly denounced discrimination against blacks in his later films. He is considered a pioneer of African American cinema.
Benjamin E. Mays (1894-1984)
The pastor and director of the Afro-American Morehouse College was regarded as the "intellectual conscience" of the civil rights movement, whose spiritual foundations he significantly influenced. Mays mentored Martin Luther King Jr. and preached nonviolence and civil resistance. The historian Lawrence Carter called him "one of the most important figures in American history".
Rosa Parks (1913-2005)
Her story went around the world: Rosa Parks was arrested in 1955 for refusing to vacate her seat on the bus for a white passenger. Her arrest sparked the "Montgomery Bus Boycott," which ultimately brought Martin Luther King to the fore in the civil rights movement. As the "mother of the civil rights movement" she was honored with the highest civilian awards in the USA.
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