How did the caliphate dynasty end

Dynasties

Ruling families. In the Islamic world, rule was held for centuries BC. a. as a dynasty. Organized rule. The first four successors of the Prophet Muḥammad as rulers of islam. Community (umma), the so-called «rightly guided caliphs», were determined by elections, but the dynast already won during the reign of the fourth caliph ʿAlī (656 - 661). Principle of supremacy. A faction of the Muslims, the Shiites, took the view that only the descendants of the Prophet from the marriage of his daughter Fāṭima to ʿAlī could be caliph. The majority of Muslims, who were later referred to as Sunnis, declared descent from the Quraish, the tribe that was dominant in Mecca at the time of the Prophet, to which Muehörammad himself belonged, as a condition for assuming the caliphate. Those Muslims who wanted to continue to adhere to the principle of electing a caliph and did not attach importance to ancestry remained in the minority (Ibāḍites). The sunni. D. the Umayyads from the house of the third caliph ʿUthmān (d. 656) led the islam. Community from 661 to 750 based in Damascus and was able to maintain a caliphate that was limited to Spain and temporarily parts of the Maghreb until the beginning of the 11th century. In the Maschrek a. Regions of eastern islam. Between 750 and 1258 the ʿAbbasids ruled another sunni world. Caliphate with center in Baghdad until their rule expired as a result of the attack by the Mongols under the grandson of Genghis Khan Hülagü (d. 1265). In competition with the ʿAbbasids, the ismāʿīlit established itself in Egypt. D. of the Fatimids (969-1171). A number of sultanates (sultans) also arose during the Abbasid period. They were theoretical. subordinated to the caliphs, but de facto largely independent, in fact able to bring the caliphs under their control. Important rulers are the Seljuks, who ruled Baghdad from 1055-1157, as well as the branch of the Rūm (here means Anatolia) - Seljuks (1077-1307) with their center in Konya; further the Ayyubid sultans (1171-1250), among them the famous Saladin, in Egypt and Syria. In the Maghreb and Spain the D. of the Almoravids (Arabic. Al-murābiṭūn, "who live in a military camp", "religious fighters") dominated in the 11th and 12th centuries and that of the Almohads (Arabic. Al-muwaḥḥidūn, "the Confessors of the unity of God ») from 1130 - 1269, both of which arose from religious reform movements. One of the most important islam. After the end of the caliphate, empire emerged under the Mamluks (1250-1517) in Egypt, Syria and the Arabs. Peninsula. This was a rule of former military slaves (Arabic mamlūk), in the context of which the inheritance of the sultanate was excluded - one of the rare exceptions to the otherwise dominant dynasty. Form of rule. Descendants of the Mongol Hülagü formed the D. of the Ilkhanids in Persia and Mesopotamia in the 13th and 14th centuries, who adopted Islam in 1295. The Timurids from the house of the Mongol. Khan's Tīmūr Lenk (Tamerlan, 1336-1405) ruled the Iran-Indian region. The Timurid Bābur (1483 - 1530) founded the Mughal Empire on the Indian subcontinent (1526 - 1857). In the 16th century, other great islam developed. Rich: in Iran that of the Shiites. Safavids (1502-1722), in Morocco that of the Saʿdites (1509-1659). The Ottomans, descendants of the Turkmen. Tribal leader Osman (d. 1324), gained increasing influence from the end of the 13th century, first in Anatolia, then in the Balkans and at the beginning of the 16th century they were able to rule over the Arab. Expand countries except Morocco. The osman. Rule ended with the establishment of the Republic of Turkey after the First World War, despite great efforts to modernize the empire and in this way make it equal to the European powers. In Iran, the Qājāren (1794-1925) followed a similar policy. The Pahlawi-D, which emerged from the Qājāren. was overthrown in 1979 by the revolution led by Khomeini. At present there are still some D. in Islam. World, including in Morocco the lawAlawids (King Muḥammad VI.) And in Jordan the Hashimites (King ʿAbd Allāh), who partly base their claim on their sharifism, but are not Shiites. Approaches dynasty. Rule has been seen in the fact that some presidents arab. Countries built up their sons as successors (e.g. Ṣaddām Ḥusain in Iraq) or that a presidential son actually came to power (Bashshār al-Asad after his father Ḥāfiẓ).

Literature:
Endreß, G .: Islam. An introduction to its history, 1997. - Krämer, G .: History of Islam, 2005.

Author:
Prof. Dr. Ralf Elger, University of Halle, Oriental Studies

Source: Elger, Ralf / Friederike Stolleis (eds.): Kleines Islam-Lexikon. History - everyday life - culture. Munich: 6th, updated and expanded edition 2018.