Why did Adolf Hitler enact the Nuremberg Laws?

Reich Citizenship Law and Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor ["Nuremberg Laws"], September 15, 1935, and the first two implementing provisions, November 14, 1935

Reich Citizenship Law

From September 15, 1935

The Reichstag unanimously passed the following law, which is hereby promulgated.

§ 1

(1) A citizen is someone who belongs to the Protection Association of the German Reich and is particularly obliged to it.

(2) Citizenship is acquired in accordance with the provisions of the Reich and Citizenship Act.

§ 2

(1) A citizen of the Reich is only a citizen of German or related blood who proves by his behavior that he is willing and suitable to serve the German people and the Reich in faithfulness.

(2) Reich citizenship is acquired by awarding the Reich citizenship certificate.

(3) The Reich citizen is the sole bearer of full political rights in accordance with the law.

§ 3

The Reich Minister of the Interior, in agreement with the Fuehrer's deputy, issues the legal and administrative regulations necessary for the implementation and amendment of the law.

Nuremberg, September 15, 1935,

at the Nazi Party Congress of Freedom.

The Fuehrer and Chancellor

Adolf Hitler

The Reich Minister of the Interior

Frick

Here after: Reichsgesetzblatt, 1935, No. 100, p. 1146.

Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor

From September 15, 1935

Imbued with the knowledge that the purity of the German blood is the prerequisite for the continued existence of the German people, and inspired by the indomitable will to secure the German nation for all future, the Reichstag unanimously passed the following law, which is hereby promulgated .

§ 1

(1) Marriages between Jews and citizens of German or related blood are prohibited. Marriages concluded in spite of this are void, even if they were concluded abroad to circumvent this law.

(2) Only the public prosecutor can bring an action for annulment.

§ 2

Extra-marital intercourse between Jews and nationals of German or related blood is prohibited.

§ 3

Jews are not allowed to employ female citizens of German or related blood under the age of 45 in their household.

§ 4

(1) Jews are prohibited from hoisting the imperial and national flags and showing the imperial colors.

(2) On the other hand, they are allowed to show the Jewish colors. The exercise of this power is under state protection.

§ 5

(1) Anyone who violates the prohibition of Section 1 will be punished with penitentiary.

(2) The man who contravenes the prohibition of § 2 is punished with imprisonment or with penitentiary.

(3) Anyone who violates the provisions of § 3 or § 4 is punished with imprisonment for up to one year and a fine or one of these penalties.

§ 6

The Reich Minister of the Interior, in agreement with the Deputy of the Fuehrer and the Reich Minister of Justice, issues the legal and administrative regulations necessary for the implementation and amendment of the law.

§ 7

The law comes into force on the day after its promulgation, but Section 3 does not come into force until January 1, 1936.

Nuremberg, September 15, 1935,

at the Nazi Party Congress of Freedom.

The Fuehrer and Chancellor

Adolf Hitler

The Reich Minister of the Interior

Frick

The Reich Minister of Justice

Dr. Gürtner

The deputy of the Führer

R. Hess

Reich Minister without portfolio

Here after: Reichsgesetzblatt, 1935, No. 100, p. 1146f.

First regulation to the Reich Citizenship Law

14 November 1935

On the basis of Section 3 of the Reich Citizenship Act of September 15, 1935, the following is decreed:

§ 1

(1) Until further regulations on the Reich Citizenship Letter are issued, citizens of German or related blood who, when the Reich Citizenship Act entered into force, had the right to vote for the Reichstag or whom the Reich Minister of the Interior, with the consent of the Fuehrer's deputy, have given the Fuehrer the provisional citizenship, are provisionally considered to be citizens of the Reich.

(2) The Minister of the Interior can, in agreement with the Führer’s deputy, withdraw the provisional Reich citizenship.

§ 2

(1) The provisions of Section 1 also apply to citizens of mixed Jewish people.

(2) A Jewish mongrel is someone who is descended from one or two of the races according to fully Jewish grandparents, unless he is considered a Jew according to Section 5 (2). A grandparent is considered fully Jewish if he or she has belonged to the Jewish religious community.

§ 3

Only the citizen of the Reich, as the bearer of full political rights, can exercise the right to vote in political affairs and hold a public office. The Reich Minister of the Interior or the body authorized by him can permit exceptions for admission to public offices for the transitional period. The affairs of religious societies are not affected.

§ 4

(1) A Jew cannot be a citizen of the Reich. He is not entitled to vote in political matters; he cannot hold a public office.

(2) Jewish civil servants will retire on December 31, 1935. If these civil servants fought at the front for the German Reich or for its allies during the World War, they receive the full pensionable salary that was last received as a pension until they reach the age limit; however, they do not increase in seniority. After reaching the age limit, your pension will be recalculated based on your last pensionable salary.

(3) The affairs of religious societies are not affected.

(4) The employment relationship of teachers in public Jewish schools remains unaffected until the reform of the Jewish school system.

§ 5

(1) A Jew is someone who is descended from at least three of the races after fully Jewish grandparents. Section 2 (2) sentence 2 applies.

(2) A Jewish mixed race who is descended from two fully Jewish grandparents is also considered a Jew,

a) who belonged to the Jewish religious community when the law was passed or was accepted into it afterwards,

b) who was married to a Jew when the law was passed or who is married to such a Jew afterwards,

c) who comes from a marriage with a Jew within the meaning of Paragraph 1, which was concluded after the law for the protection of German blood and German honor of September 15 came into force,

d) who was born out of wedlock with a Jew within the meaning of paragraph 1 and was born out of wedlock after July 31, 1936.

§ 6

(1) As far as in imperial laws or in orders of NSDAP and their classifications are placed on the purity of the blood that go beyond § 5, they remain unaffected.

(2) Other requirements for the purity of the blood that go beyond Section 5 may only be made with the consent of the Reich Minister of the Interior and the Deputy Leader. Insofar as requirements of this type already exist, they cease to apply on January 1, 1936, unless they are approved by the Reich Minister of the Interior in agreement with the Fuehrer's deputy. The application for admission must be submitted to the Reich Minister of the Interior.

§ 7

The Führer and Reich Chancellor can grant exemptions from the provisions of the implementing ordinances.

Berlin, November 14, 1935.

The Fuehrer and Chancellor

Adolf Hitler

The Reich Minister of the Interior

Frick

The deputy of the Führer

R. Hess

Reich Minister without portfolio

Here after: Reichsgesetzblatt, 1935, No. 125, pp. 1333f.

First ordinance to implement the law for the protection of German blood and German honor

14 November 1935

On the basis of Section 6 of the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor of September 15, 1935 (Reichsgesetzblatt I, p. 1146), the following is decreed:

§ 1

Citizens are the German citizens within the meaning of the Reich Citizenship Act.

Who is a Jewish mongrel is determined by § 2 paragraph 2 of the First Ordinance of November 14, 1935 on the Reich Citizenship Act (Reichsgesetzblatt I, p. 1333)

Section 5 of the same ordinance determines who is Jewish.

§ 2

The marriages forbidden according to § 1 of the law also include marriages between Jews and national Jewish mongrels who have only one fully Jewish grandparent.

§ 3

Citizens of Jewish mongrels with two fully Jewish grandparents require the approval of the Reich Minister of the Interior and the Deputy Leader or the office designated by them in order to marry citizens of German or related blood or with national Jewish mongrels who only have one fully Jewish grandparent.

When making the decision, particular consideration must be given to the applicant's physical, mental and character traits, the length of his family's residence in Germany, his or her father's participation in the World War and his or her other family history.

The application for approval must be submitted to the higher administrative authority in whose district the applicant is domiciled or habitually resident.

The procedure is regulated by the Reich Minister of the Interior in agreement with the Fuehrer's deputy.

§ 4

Marriage should not be concluded between national Jewish mongrels who have only one fully Jewish grandparent.

§ 5

The obstacles to marriage due to Jewish blood impact are exhaustively regulated by Section 1 of the Act and Sections 2 to 4 of this Ordinance.

§ 6

Furthermore, a marriage should not be concluded if it can be expected to result in offspring that would endanger the preservation of the German blood.

§ 7

Before the marriage, every fiancé must prove by means of the marriage certificate (Section 2 of the Marriage Health Act of October 18, 1935 - Reichsgesetzblatt I, p. 1246) that there is no impediment to marriage within the meaning of Section 6 of this ordinance. If the certificate of marital status is refused, only the supervisory complaint is permissible.

§ 8

The nullity of a marriage entered into contrary to Section 1 of the Act or Section 2 of this Ordinance can only be asserted on the basis of the correctness of the situation.

For marriages that have been concluded contrary to Sections 3, 4 and 6, the consequences of Section 1 and Section 5 (1) of the Act do not apply.

§ 9

If one of the betrothed has a foreign nationality, the decision of the Reich Minister is before a refusal of the summons due to one of the obstacles to marriage mentioned in § 1 of the law or in §§ 2 to 4 of this regulation as well as before a refusal of the marriage certificate in cases of § 6 of the interior.

§ 10

A marriage that is concluded before a German consular authority is considered to have been concluded in Germany.

§ 11

Extra-marital intercourse within the meaning of Section 2 of the Act is only sexual intercourse. According to Section 5 (2) of the Act, extramarital relations between Jews and national Jewish mongrels who have only one fully Jewish grandparent are also punishable.

§ 12

A household is Jewish (Section 3 of the Act) if a Jewish man is the head of the household or a member of the household.

Anyone who is employed in the household is employed in the household, or who is engaged in everyday household chores or everyday household-related work.

Female citizens of German or related blood who were employed in a Jewish household when the law was passed can remain in their previous employment in this household if they have reached the age of 35 by December 31, 1935.

Foreign nationals who are neither domiciled nor permanently resident in Germany are not subject to this provision.

§ 13

Anyone who violates the prohibition of Section 3 of the Act in conjunction with Section 12 of this Ordinance is liable to prosecution under Section 5 (3) of the Act, even if he is not a Jew.

§ 14

For crimes against Section 5 (1) and (2) of the Act, the large criminal chamber is responsible in the first instance.

§ 15

Insofar as the provisions of the law and its implementing ordinances relate to German citizens, they also apply to stateless persons who have their domicile or habitual abode in Germany. Stateless persons who have their place of residence or habitual abode abroad are only subject to these provisions if they previously held German citizenship.

§ 16

The Führer and Reich Chancellor can grant exemptions from the provisions of the law and the implementing ordinances.

The prosecution of a foreign national requires the consent of the Reich Ministers of Justice and the Interior.

§ 17

The ordinance comes into force on the day following its promulgation. The Reich Minister of the Interior shall determine the point in time when Section 7 comes into force; up to this point in time, a certificate of marital status is only required in cases of doubt.

Berlin, November 14, 1935

The Fuehrer and Chancellor

Adolf Hitler

The Reich Minister of the Interior

Frick

The deputy of the Führer

R. Hess

Reich Minister without portfolio

The Reich Minister of Justice

Dr. Gürtner

Here after: Reichsgesetzblatt, 1935, No. 125, p. 1134ff.